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' I "HIS Issue is founded on the original Edition 
published by Rudolph Ackermann. 






AT the commencement of a second volume, the proprietor 
of the MICROCOSM OF LONDON presents himself to the 
public with a confidence resulting from the kind pro- 
tection which they have extended to the work, and from a strong 
conviction with which he is impressed, that their satisfaction is 

When the proposals for this work were first published, he 
could offer no other pledge in return for the confidence he 
solicited, but what might be supposed to arise from the execu- 
tion of other works in which he had been engaged, and from 
the acknowledged merit of the persons employed ; but he flatters 
himself he shall not at this period be accused of vanity, if he 
appeals to the work itself for a proof of the anxious punctuality 
with which he has endeavoured to discharge his engagements, 
and to merit a continuance of public approbation. That 
patronage which has already been so generously extended to 
him, and the high honour of being permitted to dedicate this 
work to one of the best judges, as well as the most liberal 
encouragers of the polite arts, so far from permitting the pro- 
prietor to relax in his efforts, will, on the contrary, excite him 


to leave no means unemployed to communicate pleasure and 
information to his readers, and to present them with a second 
volume equally distinguished for the elegance of the plates with 
which it is embellished, the accuracy of the information it 
conveys, and the variety of entertainment as well as novelty 
it affords, so far as the subjects which his plan embraces will 

He has to apologize for two deviations from the plan originally 
proposed. The one by exchanging some of the subjects for 
others which have been considered as more interesting, either 
from the information by which they may be accompanied, or as 
affording more picturesque subjects for the plates. The other 
alteration is, the having formed the work into three volumes 
instead of four, although the number of plates is the same, and 
the letter-press, both in importance and quantity, more consider- 
able than was originally proposed : the reasons for this were 
stated to the subscribers when the sixth number was published. 

There has been another alteration indeed, of which it becomes 
the proprietor to say a few words. He was anxious to render 
this work to the public at as moderate a price as possible, and 
therefore proposed the subscriptions at only seven shillings per 
number, but he had not then sufficiently calculated the expence 
of so considerable an undertaking ; notwithstanding which he 
continued to keep pace, and even to emulate the patronage of the 
public, by increasing the value of the MICROCOSM as the number 
of his subscribers increased : but there was a point at which this 


emulation ceased to be any longer a virtue, and he was at length 
obliged to raise the subscriptions to ten shillings and sixpence per 
number to those who became subscribers after the publication of 
the first volume ; and he flatters himself, that the manner in 
which he has performed his engagement to near one thousand of 
his old subscribers, without any additional expence, will entitle 
him to some credit with the nobility and others who have become 
subscribers since that period, when he assures them, it is, even at 
the present subscription, not only very inadequate to its real 
value, but that there is no work at present issuing from the press 
and the pencil so cheap and so complete. 

To compare it with other works of a similar nature, would 
prove a task equally irksome and disagreeable ; it is far otherwise 
when the proprietor has to express his thanks to those whose 
assistance he is proud to acknowledge, and to the artists and 
others, who have contributed by their zeal, abilities, and attention, 
to the success of the undertaking. 

If in the hurry incident to a publication which requires to be 
delivered on a certain day, any inaccuracies have escaped the 
particular attention which is bestowed, it is hoped that a candid 
allowance will be made, and the intimation of such inaccuracies 
will be thankfully received. 













KING'S MEWS - - 162 
LLOYD'S - - - - 174 

LOTTERY ,- - 193 



MAGDALEN - - 196 

MINT - 2 3 


NEWGATE - - 2 9 



PANTHEON - - 215 


PILLORY - " 22 ^ 



N.B. The binder is requested to note the above, as furnishing him with directions 
for the arrangement of the plates. 







IN our last number we promised to resume this subject, in 
order to gratify our readers by what information we could 
procure respecting societies of this nature, and to say a few 
words upon the state of eloquence in this country. 

We can only trace their first appearance a little way into the 
last century, and, notwithstanding it has been said that several 
distinguished characters made their first attempts in oratory, and 
tried the infant powers of their eloquence, at some of the popular 
forums, in order to acquire confidence* by practice and frequent 

* A student at law, who studied at Poitiers, had tolerably improved himself in cases 
of equity, not that he was overburthened with learning, but his chief deficiency was a 
want of assurance and confidence to display the little knowledge he had ; his father 
recommended him to read aloud, and to render his memory more prompt by a continued 
exercise of it. To effect this, he determined to read at the Ministery. In order to 
obtain a certain degree of assurance, he went every day into a garden, which was very 
retired, and where there grew a number of fine cabbages : thus for a long time, as he 
n. B 


exertion ; yet neither history or tradition furnish us with materials 
to assign a great degree of celebrity to any one in particular. 
The English nation are said to be partial to amusements of this 
nature, and considering the extent to which the discussion of 
all political subjects may be carried in this country above all 
others, even with safety to the constitution, we may cease to 
wonder at this circumstance. It was well observed by the lord 
chief justice, at the trials for high treason at the Old Bailey in 
1796, "That among the objects of the attention of freemen, the 
principles of government, the constitutions of particular govern- 
ments, and, above all, of the government under which they live, 
will naturally engage their attention and provoke speculation." 
The power of communication of thoughts and opinions is the 
gift of God, and the freedom of it, is the source of all science, 
the first fruit, and the ultimate happiness of society ; and therefore 
it seems to follow, that human laws ought not to interpose, nay, 
cannot interpose to prevent the communication of sentiments and 
opinions in voluntary assemblies of men. And yet circumstances 
have arisen in this country which made it expedient, if not 
absolutely necessary, to restrain that freedom of discussion, which 
degenerating into licentiousness, had nearly involved this country 

pursued his studies, he went to repeat his lesson to these cabbages, addressing them by 
the title of gentlemen, and dealing out his sentences as if they had composed an 
audience of scholars at a lecture. After having prepared himself in this manner for 
some time, he began to think he might take the chair : he accordingly ventures, comes 
forward, and commences his oration ; proceeding the length of a single sentence, he 
becomes confused then dumb altogether ; making a last effort, he at length exclaims, 
"Domini, ego bene -video quod non estes caules;" or, in plain English, "Gentlemen, I 
clearly perceive you are no cabbages." 


in a scene of murder and desolation, similar to that by which 
France had been afflicted. At the period to which we allude, 
clubs and societies were formed, in which were publicly discussed 
and disseminated principles more extensive in their influence and 
effects than any which had ever divided the opinions of mankind 
principles utterly subversive of all the ancient laws and con- 
stitutions, and inimical to the moral and religious order of things 
established for centuries principles which excited a desire of 
property among the lower orders, and a disposition to obtain it 
by plunder: accordingly two bills were passed in the year 1796, 
which put all meetings of more than fifty persons under the 
controul of a magistrate, who was authorized to dissolve them 
instantly, if any subject was brought forward, which, in his 
opinion, was unlawful or of a seditious tendency ; and if twelve 
persons remained one hour after being ordered to disperse, they 
were adjudged guilty of felony without benefit of clergy. These 
two bills, on which the public bestowed the appellation of the 
Pitt and Grenville Acts, or the Gagging Bills, were received by 
the nation with the most evident and general marks of dis- 
approbation, as being more restrictive upon the rights and un- 
doubted privileges of Englishmen, than any which had passed 
since the reigns of the Tudors. On the other hand, it has been 
urged, that they were necessary to the preservation of the lives 
and property of individuals, and the security of the constitution, 
and ultimately, of the liberties of the people.* 

* Mr. Burke has well observed, " That the faults which grow out of the luxuriance of 
freedom, appear much more shocking to us, than those vices which are generated from 
the rankness of servitude." 


In an exposition of the object and intention of one of these 
societies, called The British Forum, published by a manager, it 
is stated, that although the acts against seditious assemblies had 
expired above five years, yet such were the general alarm and 
universal ignorance that prevailed on this subject (namely, that 
these acts bore no reference, nor were ever applied to the 
suppression of societies for debate !) that scarcely one proprietor 
of a room could be found, from one extremity of London to the 
other, that would hire it for the purpose of public discussion. 
It is farther stated (after having with difficulty procured a room), 
that on the fourth evening's discussion, on the question whether 
Mr. Pope's assertion be true or false, " That every woman is at 
heart a rake" between six and seven hundred of the most 
elegant and fashionable of both sexes attended. On the question, 
" Which is more deserving the appellation of a British patriot, 
Mr. Pitt or Mr. Fox?" about five hundred persons assembled, 
among whom were several of the most eminent and distinguished 
literary and political characters in the' country. On the question 
respecting Mr. Cobbett's assertion, that, "As a part of general 
education, the learned languages are worse than useless," the 
discussion continued for two evenings before an assembly of 
upwards of eight hundred persons inclusive. 

Upon the investigation of Sir Francis Burdett's address to the 
electors of Westminster, the room was crowded with elegance, 
beauty, and fashion. On the subject of vaccination a crowded 
assembly attended, consisting for the most part of the medical 
profession, among whom were Dr. Squirrell, Dr. Thornton, 
Dr. Lipscombe, Mr. Chamberlayne, Mr. Blair, &c. all of whom 
offered their sentiments upon this truly interesting subject. We 


shall conclude this account with a copy of the regulations of the 
British Forum, from the same publication, observing, that there 
are several institutions of this description, and principally 
governed by regulations of a similar nature. 

i st. The debate commences at eight o'clock, and concludes at ten. 

and. Any gentleman is at liberty to propose a question, but the proposer is 
expected to open and conclude the debate ; unless in the event of a gentleman 
wishing to speak, the proposer, to accommodate him, may wave his privilege of 

3d. No gentleman is to be permitted by the chairman to speak longer than a 
quarter of an hour, unless with the consent of a majority of the audience. Any 
gentleman may remind the chairman that the time is expired. Any improper 
person who may intrude himself on the audience, or whose sentiments are 
manifestly disagreeable to them, may be prevented from speaking at all ; this must 
be determined by a vote of the assembly. 

4th. At a quarter before ten o'clock, the chairman must call upon the gentle- 
man who opened the question to conclude the evening's debate. 

5th. After the opener has been called upon for his reply, no other gentleman 
can be heard on that evening, unless a motion of adjournment be made, seconded, 
and carried by a majority of the audience; in which case any gentleman may 
conclude that evening's debate instead of the opener, and the debate is necessarily 
adjourned to a future evening. 

6th. Upon an adjourned question, any gentleman may resume the discussion ; 
but such as have not spoken on the preceding evening claim the preference before 
such as have already delivered their sentiments. The original opener must 
conclude the debate. 

7th. All personalities, indelicate language, or improper allusions, are to be 
carefully avoided. 

The antiquity of eloquence in England has been usually proved 
by a line of Juvenal, 

Gallia causidicos docuit facunda Britannos. 
It happens unfortunately, that, when united with the context, it 


proves no such thing ; on the contrary, it is only an ironical 
panegyric on a people, who, in a language they were scarce able 
to pronounce, affected to vie with Pliny and Cicero. The true 
sense appears from what immediately follows : 

De conducendo loquitur jam rhetore Thule. 

The state of eloquence in this country may be divided into 
that of the theatre, the pulpit, the bar, and the parliament. In 
the first Mr. John Kemble is certainly unrivalled : if he is not 
possessed of those versatile powers which distinguished Garrick, 
and enabled him to personate with equal excellence an Hamlet 
or Abel Drugger, he is peculiarly gifted with powers, which 
make him in some respects superior to that great actor. It is 
not his form, however, but his elocution, to which our attention 
is now directed. His performance of Orestes in the Distrest 
Mother, is a chef d'ceuvre in acting ; the agonies of disappointed 
affection, the struggles between honour and ambition, the majesty 
of his action, the alternate softness and energy of his expression, 
and, lastly, the grandeur and sublimity with which he portrays 
the awful wildness of a disordered intellect, place him beyond all 
comparison the first actor of the present day. 

In the performance of Rolla he is also unrivalled. We have 
seen Othello, Beverly, and perhaps Macbeth, performed as well ; 
and certainly Mr. Cooke performs Richard the Third better than 
Mr. Kemble. In Hamlet again Mr. Kemble exhibits his great 
powers to advantage. 

In the speech wherein Shakespeare has so charmingly portrayed 
our nature, beginning with 

" What a piece of work is man ! " 


Mr. K. gives a fine specimen of theatric declamation, universally 
admired ; there is a distinctness in his articulation, and richness 
in his expression, which command the attention, and seldom fail 
to excite a high degree of public sensibility. 

Mr. Kemble reminds us of Demosthenes, who is said to have 
had a weak voice, a thick way of speaking, and a short breath, 
to correct which, the accounts we have of his efforts seem 
incredible : at length, however, he became the most enchanting, 
nervous, majestic orator of antiquity. 

Mr. Cooke is an instance of how much may be effected without 
the appearance of labour. His features are strongly marked, and 
the expression of them is varied with the utmost rapidity and 
ease. His soliloquies are great, and he speaks them with less 
appearance of acting than any other performer upon the stage. 
He has certainly acquired a knowledge which may be useful to 
others, that absence of effort is among the latest acquisitions 
of taste. 

Mr. Elliston unites more versatility of powers than either of 
the preceding gentlemen ; there is a chasteness in his delivery 
that wants only the addition of that mellowness which is the 
effect of experience, rather than genius. If he is not uniformly 
as great as Mr. J. Kemble, there are flashes of genius which 
occasionally burst forth, and tell us, that he may be in some 
parts greater. He is particularly to be admired in tragedy, for 
avoiding that insufferable rant and fustian of elocution, which 
tear a passion to tatters. His under tones are managed with 
great skill and sensibility. 

In speaking of the eloquence of the stage, it would be un- 
pardonable not to mention Mrs. Siddons, who unites in the 


highest degree all the great powers of this art. To particularize 
would be to lessen what the limits of our design will not admit 
of our doing justice to. 

It was observed by a respectable foreigner some years ago, 
that the declamation of the English pulpit was in general a most 
tedious monotony. The ministers of the church have adopted 
this peculiarity of manner out of respect to religion, which they 
contend, will prove, defend, and support itself, without having 
any occasion for the assistance of oratory. For the truth of this 
assertion, we appeal to themselves for the progress which religion 
thus inculcated makes among the people of this country. The 
curious observer of the present state of pulpit oratory, will perhaps 
discover a higher degree of improvement in the manner of de- 
livery, than in the elegance of style, or the matter of composition. 

The oratory of the bar is comparatively at a low ebb : the 
sweetness of Murray, and the eloquence of Erskine, are ex- 
changed for the unblushing persiflage of Garrow, and the close, 
logical precision of Gibbs. Indeed, the discussions in our courts 
of law turning either upon the elucidation of facts, or the applica- 
tion of the law to those facts, so as to bring the point at issue 
to decision, requires less of eloquence, than subtilty and know- 
ledge of law ; and as there occur but few instances in which the 
former can be as useful as the latter, there is less inducement 
for the cultivation of this peculiar talent. In the courts of equity 
eloquence is even less necessary. The pleadings there seem to 
be formed upon the model of the ancient Norman customs or 
laws, which confined the eloquence of the bar within the narrowest 
bounds, or to what was absolutely essential to the cause. By 
this law, pleaders are called conteurs, or relaters. But this should 


certainly not preclude the cultivation of elegance in manner or 
language, or the suppression of those defects which take away 
from the pleasure with which we attend to, and therefore from 
the effect of eloquence. 

Demosthenes, we are told, took no less care of his action than 
he did of his voice. To correct a fault of shrugging up his 
shoulders, he practised standing upright in a narrow pulpit, over 
which hung a point in such a manner, that if in the heat of 
his action that motion escaped him, he might be admonished, 
and correct it. 

But it is in the two Houses of Parliament that real eloquence 
is displayed ; it is here the most important interests of the nation 
are discussed with all that energy and animation which the love 
of their country, or the spirit of party, can excite. If this 
miscellany had been written a very few years since, we should 
have been tempted to rate the eloquence of the British senate 
very high indeed ; when Pitt, Fox, Burke, and Sheridan, together 
illumined the political horizon. The first distinguished by that 
calm and easy-flowing eloquence, which was always accompanied 
with propriety, occasionally warm, splendid, and animated, but 
seldom lively or pathetic ; uncommonly clear and accurate in 
stating the points to which he spoke, and in collecting the 
substance of what had been stated either by his opponent or 
himself: he possessed an elegant choice of words, which flowed 
in periods so harmonious and correct, that the omission of a 
single word would seem to destroy them ; a copious elocution, 
with a sonorous voice, for which he was indebted to a fine natural 
capacity, improved by constant exercise and attention. 

His great opponent possessed powers of a very different 


nature : without effort and without art, his manner was warm, 
animated, and pathetic ; more violent in his style and action, and 
abounding with redundancies and repetitions : his ideas were so 
pregnant, that, crowding altogether as it were to the gate of 
utterance, they appeared to jostle each other in the passage. 
But this was the man, whose eloquence at once rapid and con- 
vincing, every one gazed at and admired ; this was the man, 
whose eloquence sometimes bore every thing before it like a 
torrent, and at others stole imperceptibly upon the senses, and 
probed the inmost recesses of the heart. 

It is more difficult to characterize the eloquence of Mr. Burke. 
It was neither the eloquence of Cicero or Demosthenes, but 
occasionally rivalled both. It was often great, but sometimes 
very unequal ; the alacrity of his imagination was seldom 
sufficiently subdued by his judgment, and he too often suffered 
the vivacity of his fancy to run away with his more correct taste : 
but no man possessed a more intimate acquaintance with those 
parts of literature which feed the springs of eloquence no one 
had been more thoroughly nurtured at the breast of philosophy 
no one was better acquainted with the genius and spirit of the 
laws and constitution of his country no one was more com- 
pletely a master of its history, which so often enabled him to 
teach by example, and bring the venerable dead to the instruction 
of the living no one knew how to dilate his subject with more 
propriety, to enliven it by agreeable digression, or by telling the 
tale of sorrow, to draw forth the tear of sympathy and compassion. 

Mr. Sheridan has exhibited perhaps altogether the most 
splendid specimen of eloquence which this country affords. It 
is embellished with all the brilliant figures of rhetoric, and 


studded with sentiment. It is a florid, picturesque species of 
oratory, interwoven with the most elegant language, and 
embroidered with the most beautiful expressions : it leaves us 
nothing to regret, but that talents so great and estimable, are 
not rendered more useful to his country, or more frequently 

Cicero, in giving an account of the studies and labour which 
he employed in order to attain the excellence to which he 
at length arrived, has drawn a picture of his contemporary, 
Hortensius, which seems very applicable to Mr. Sheridan. 

" Hortensius, after his appointment to the consulship, had 
begun to remit the intense application which he had hitherto 
persevered in from his childhood. In the three succeeding 
years, the beauty of his colouring was so much impaired, as 
to be very perceptible to a skilful, though not to a common 
observer. After that he grew every day more unlike himself 
than before, not only in other parts of eloquence, but by a 
gradual decay of the former celerity and elegant texture of his 
language. When Hortensius therefore, the once eloquent and 
admired Hortensius, had almost vanished from the forum, my 
appointment to the consulship, which happened about six years 
after his own promotion to that office, revived his dying emula- 
tion ; for he was unwilling, that, after I had equalled him in rank 
and dignity, I should become his superior in any other respect." 

There are a number of our commoners who possess an elegant 
and easy flow of words, uncommon perspicuity of language, and 
who treat the subjects under discussion with great soundness of 
argument ; but there are few whose powers are calculated to 
dazzle or surprise, or to carry us away with a force of eloquence 


commanding and irresistible. There are many who can treat 
common subjects with simplicity and neatness, but none who are 
equal to the task of developing great and weighty matters with 
energy and pathos, unless we sometimes except Mr. Windham, 
and occasionally Mr. Whitbread. In the House of Lords the 
late Chancellor Erskine is without dispute the most brilliant 
orator ; but certainly his eloquence, and the sources which feed 
it, are more adapted to forensic than parliamentary debate. Lord 
Grenville employs a nervous, chastised, and dignified species of 
oratory, but seldom approaches the highest regions of the art, 
and is interesting without being splendid or pathetic ; he takes 
an ample and comprehensive view of his subject, is argumentative 
without fluency, and sincere without being animated. He divides 
his subject with great exactness, and seldom overlooks any thing 
that is proper to support his own argument, or refute his opponent's ; 
and he unites qualities which are seldom found together, great 
strength with a superior elegance. There are many other noble- 
men whose eloquence belongs to the highest class, but which it is 
impossible for us to characterize particularly : among whom, the 
present chancellor Lord Eldon, the Lords Hawkesbury, Holland, 
Lauderdale, Suffolk, Sidmouth, and Redesdale, are particularly 
distinguished ; nor must we forget that eloquence which so long 
distinguished my Lord Melville. 


IS a very handsome building on the east side of Mark-lane. 
Next the street is an ascent of three steps to a range of 
eight lofty Doric columns, those at the corners being coupled ; 
between them are iron rails, and three iron gates. These columns, 
with two others on the inside, support a plain building two stories 
high, which contains two coffee-houses, to which there are ascents 
by a flight of handsome stone steps on each side of the edifice. 
On entering the iron gates, you pass by these steps into a small 
square (paved with broad stones,) which is surrounded by a colon- 
nade, composed of six columns on each side, and four at the end, 
reckoning the corners twice. Above the entablature is a hand- 
some balustrade, surrounding the whole square, with an elegant 
vase placed over each column. The space around within the 
colonnade is very broad, with sash windows on the top, to give 
the greater light to the corn-factors, who sit round the court 
below. Each has a kind of desk before him (as shewn in the 
plate), on which are several handfuls of corn, and from these 
small samples are every market - day sold many thousand 


A TABLE of the Corn exported from England during five years, distinguishing 
the species thereof, with the bounties payable thereon laid before Parliament. 





















Barley . 









Malt . . 


















Rye . . 









Wheat . 












N.B. The difference between the quantity of corn exported, and that of corn exported 
for bounty, is occasioned by some that has been exported to Alderney, Guernsey, and 
Jersey, and some in foreign ships, which is not entitled to bounty. 

These great exports have been principally from the ports of 
London, Ipswich, Yarmouth, Wales, Lynn Regis, Hull, Bristol, 
Southampton, Cowes, Chichester, and Shoreham ; and the chief 
countries exported to are, Holland, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, 
Portugal, and the Mediterranean ; but France and Flanders, on 
account of the war, had not any transmitted, except a certain 
supply sent to fill the French magazines previous to opening the 
campaign, which was a main cause of the precipitate and ill- 
considered treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

The total exports of the above period of five years being 
3,768,444 quarters of different species of corn, may be supposed 
to have produced, 

at 35*. per quarter .6,594,777 

at 405 7,536,888 

at45-r 8,478,999 

at 505. , 9,421,110 


or the medium of these sums being 8,007, 94&/. in either case it is 
an immense sum to flow immediately from the produce of the 
earth and the labour of the people, enriching our merchants, and 
increasing an invaluable brood of seamen. 

Prices of Grain per quarter at BEAR-QUAY and MARK-LANE 
for fifteen successive years. 





s. s. 

s. s. 

s. s. d. 


26 to 29 

15 tO 20 

12 tO 15 


20 23 

15 .. 20 

13 16 o 


19 21 

II ,, 13 

9 12 o 


18 20 

12 IS 

12 l6 


17 I, 24 

10 13 

12 14 


27 3 

8 12 

7 ii o 


26 28 

13 .. J 4 

9 12 o 


27 ,, 32 

17 18 

14 16 o 


24 27 

14 ,, i? 

12 13 

I7S 1 

24 27 

14 ,. 17 

12 13 

i7S 2 

20 25 

10 13 

9 ii o 


29 ,, 35 

17 18 

IO ,, 12 O 


27 ,, 33 

i7 .. 19 

12 13 


24 ., 26 

12 14 

10 IJ 

i7S 6 

22 26 

14 ,, 15 

12 13 6 

The two following pages exhibit an account of the weekly quantities of BRITISH CORN 
sold in the port of London, eastward of London bridge, with the average prices per 
quarter for one year, ending 25th June, 1808, under an act of 3ist George III. 
cap. 30. 














s. <l. 

*. d. 

f. t. d. 


4 July, 1807 


15 3 


i 19 5 


9 i 




15 6 




10 7 




16 9 


2 4 s 


9 2 




19 2 

95 8 



9 10 


i August 





9 o 




18 9 

I22 3 



8 4 




18 8 


2 8 7 






17 u 


2 7 i 


8 7 


2 9 


18 i 




8 o 


5 September 


18 5 




8 9 




19 o 


2 12 3 


1 3 




19 8 


2 12 II 


12 8 




2 5 


2 12 2 




3 October 


2 I II 


2 12 O 








2 13 2 


ii 9 






2 14 4 






2 O O 


3 on 






2 I 


2 16 o 




7 November 




2 16 5 


10 II 






2 17 9 


ii 5 




2 S 8 


2 17 2 


12 5 




2 5 10 


2 IS 9 


13 4 


S December 


2 8 I 


2 16 4 


16 9 






2 17 2 


18 4 






2 16 II 

1 1 774 

18 ii 






2 18 3 




2 Jan. 1808 


2 4 I 


2 17 8 


18 i 






2 16 8 


18 9 






2 16 4 


17 10 






2 15 8 


17 2 






2 15 9 

I5 6 34 

15 10 


6 February 




2 l6 IO 


16 3 






2 16 7 


17 o 




2 5 7 


2 15 8 


16 7 




2 4 10 


2 14 IO 


15 7 


5 March 




2 16 6 


IS 7 




2 3 i 


2 15 8 


15 2 






2 14 3 


15 II 






2 14 S 


16 8 


2 April 




2 14 10 


16 ii 




2 4 II 


2 13 II 


17 i 




2 4 10 


2 14 4 


16 i 


2 3 




2 14 2 


17 3 






2 14 8 


17 3 


7 May 


2 7 8 


2 16 3 


18 9 




2 8 I 


2 16 8 








3 o i 

1 201 1 











4 June 




3 5 5 


2 5 10 












2 5 IO 




2 5 4 









London, i^th August, 1808. 

E. E. 













*. d. 

s. d. 

>. d. 


4 July, 1807 

1 2O 





3 9 ii 




2 12 




3 13 o 




3 II O 


2 5 


3 12 7 




4 10 i 




3 18 8 


i August 






3 17 3 




4 13 ii 




3 12 10 




3 12 I 


o o o 


3 ii 9 




5 o 7 










2 5 o 




5 September 


4 17 o 


2 6 II 


3 6 5 






2 3 8 


3 5 4 



1 88 

5 o 4 


2 3 8 












3 October 


4 14 10 








5 ii 3 




3 5 10 




7 4 5 

O O O 













7 13 i 




3 4 10 


7 November 



O O O 


3 2 I 




6 15 7 








5 8 5 







33 1 

6 15 7 


o o o 


3 7 6 


5 December 


6 4 ii 




3 8 9 






2 10 

73 5 9 

3 10 8 








3 13 10 






2 10 


3 15 6 


2 Jan. 1808 


6 18 5 




3 IS 




6 6 ii 




3 13 10 








3 12 o 




5 19 6 


2 10 I 


3 12 7 




6 18 o 




3 13 4 


6 February 

35 1 



2 10 4 


3 12 7 




6 5 7 


2 12 


3 12 2 




6 17 4 




3 12 7 








3 ii ii 


5 March 


5 o 3 


2 9 II 


3 12 3 




6 10 5 


O O O 


3 10 6 




5 17 8 


o o o 


3 ii ii 






2 II 


3 10 ii 


2 April 


5 17 8 


2 9 5 


3 13 8 




6 S i 


2 10 


3 ii i 




5 2 10 




3 12 i 








3 ii 6 




5 5 9 




3 12 10 


7 May 


6 4 10 


2 9 10 


3 12 II 




5 II 2 


2 9 10 


3 14 10 




5 7 8 


2 10 3 


3 14 8 








3 16 8 


4 June 


3 ii 9 


2 13 7 


4 o 10 




3 16 o 


2 14 


4 3 ii 




3 12 8 


2 14 5 








2 13 6 



II. C 

JOHN SMITON, inspector of corn returns for the port of London. 


In the year 1770, an act passed for registering the prices at 
which corn is sold in the several counties in Great Britain, and 
the quantity exported and imported. By this act, the justices 
of peace for each county are required, at their quarter sessions 
next after the 2Qth September annually, to direct returns to be 
made weekly of the prices of wheat, rye, barley, oats, and beans, 
from so many market towns within their respective counties as 
they shall think proper, not being less than two, nor more than 
six, and to appoint a proper person to send the same to a person 
to be named to receive them. 

By this act, the meal-weighers of the city of London are to 
take the account of the prices at the markets within the said 
city, and to return the average weekly to the person appointed 
to receive the same. 

The lord high treasurer is also empowered to appoint a fit 
person to receive the returns, and to enter them fairly in a book 
kept for that purpose ; and all exports and imports of grain from 
and into Great Britain, with the bounties paid and received 
thereon, are directed to be transmitted annually to the same 
person, and registered in proper books by the person appointed 
to receive the returns of the prices from the several counties. 

The following tables will exhibit at one view the quantities of 
corn exported and imported from England and Scotland, and the 
average prices thereof, from the commencement of this act, drawn 
up from the returns made in pursuance thereof; and likewise the 
average price of the several sorts of grain in each year respectively. 


Table of Corn exported from England and Scotland. 

















. s. d. 

1771. England 



233 6 4 



6170 7 6 






1772. England 









1773. England 










1774. England 







Indian corn 


596l 12 

Buck wheat 






6 1 ii 10 

1775. England 
Indian corn 


43 2 3 






9641 7 7 







1776. England 
Indian corn 







5I7II 15 2 







1322 13 9 

1777. England 
Indian corn 








43352 2 5 







2426 15 to 

1778. England 







40326 4 9 







3704 ii 6 

1779. England 







51446 3 8 






3157 o o 

1780. England 







70513 10 6| 






cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

7232 3 6 

Biscuit . . 

12613 I 23 

1781. England 







26663 1 3 i 






cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

5653 10 9^ 

Biscuit . . 

6383 I o 

1782. England 







42336 ii oi 






5633 3 5i 

1783. England 







13579 o 6J 








179 IS 5 

1784. England 







22925 i 8 







950 6 3 

1785. England 







22672 i 8 6J 







3848 8 10 

1786. England 







51053 17 lof 






2830 i 10 

1787. England 







55892 3 4 






1097 i 4j 

1788. England 







Buck wheat 


44206 i ii j 

Indian corn 








976 10 4 


Table of Corn exported from England and Scotland. . .continued. 













Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

. *. d. 

1789. England 


315606 o 

36162 o 

18500 o 

9169 o 

39807 o 

76551 16 \\ 

Groats . . 


40059 o 

6520 o 



139 o 

5999 5 o 

1790. England 



13642 o 


7116 o 

47 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

IOI73 15 2 

12434 o 18 

Indian corn 


Groats . . 


585 o 

633 o 


382 o 

464 13 lof 

1791. England 


36799 o 

15281 o 

7906 o 

5388 o 

3528 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

7168 19 4i 

11834 3 7 

Indian corn 




5260 o 

1078 o 


57 o 

Biscuit . . 


Groats . . 


1792. England 


44898 o 

23875 o 

11593 o 

5551 o 

16150 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs 

69426 o 4 

nroi I 14 

Biscuit . . 

48560 o o 



4229 o 


63 o 

82 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs 

cwt. q. Ib. 

2609 o 7 

52S 2 3 

Groats . . 


1039 i 3 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

Biscuit . . 

2232 3 o 

Groats . . 



1793. England 


4315 o 

17023 o 

8839 o 

4508 o 

511 o 


5226 13 o 


Biscuit . . 




146 o 

385 o 

61 o 

72 o 


Groats . . 




3 o 


385 2 1^ 

Biscuit . . 


qrs. Ibs. 

1794. England 

75032 3 

6328 7 

12350 2 

3240 2 

842 3 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

cwt. q. Ibs. 

133770 2 2 

3552 3 15 

5078 7 2 

qrs. Ibs. 

bolls. Ibs. 

Indian corn 

1448 2 

8 7 56 


1446 4 

3075 o 

qrs. Ibs. 

290 5 

39 2 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 
1360 2 2O 

1037 5 

cwt. q. Ibs. 


715 16 4 

qrs. Ibs. 

533 2 6 

Groats . . 

37 2 





Table of Corn imported into England and Scotland, 















. s. d. 

1771. England 
Indian corn 







I3I70 2 I 




547 8 II 

1772. England 







Indian corn 


2393 6 10 

Buck wheat 







Buck wheat 


1372 14 II 

1773. England 







Indian corn 


Duty free. 

Buck wheat 









Duty free. 

1774. England 
Indian corn 







12379 4 3 

Buck wheat 







1336 ii 8 

1775. England 
Indian corn 







18442 18 2 







J355 i 5 

1776. England 







3658 5 5 






30 12 7 

1777. England 
Buck wheat 








8835 13 9 


2 54 


o 14 9 

1778. England 







4890 5 7 




!4 3 9 

1779. England 







2849 18 7 




139 18 2j 

1780. England 






1067 o ii 




cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

60 ii oj 

Biscuit . . 

284 o 17 

1781. England 







4275 4 9 




cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

447 6 3} 

Biscuit . . 

43 o 27 

1782. England 






2270 2 7 






79 H 6 

1783. England 
Indian corn 








17062 9 2 

Barley meal 







3547 4 3 

1784. England 
Indian corn 







7406 15 5 







2522 15 3 


Table of Corn imported into England and Scotland. . .continued. 










Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

Qrs. b. 

. s. d. 

1785. England 
Indian wheat 


28738 o 

63666 o 

285449 o 

9355 o 

6736 o 

6249 15 6 



23 o 

3546 o 


722 o 

1119 i 8 

1786. England 


311 o 

50143 o 

412097 o 


1617 o 

5556 2 9 


I O 

12231 o 

66376 o 

180 o 

714 8 o 

1787. England 
Indian corn 


2702 o 

17783 o 

395979 o 

36913 o 

2267 o 

5061 12 2j 



4352 o 

25461 o 

116025 o 

3705 o 

1564 7 7 

1788. England 
Indian corn 



333139 o 

9190 o 

1092 o 

5344 3 4 




7794 o 

80687 o 

619 o 

1321 ii 6 

1789. England 
Indian corn 


14844 o 

8749 o 

365967 o 

162 o 


4814 3 7l 



2378 o 

63754 o 

130 o 

1334 * 9 

1790. England 



24267 o 

622566 o 

39446 o 

3548 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 
65862 12 

10856 17 3 

Indian corn 




5850 o 


192 o 

1630 6 2\ 

1791. England 


56124 o 

43718 o 

638968 o 

12615 o 

1939 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

113258 i 7 

15561 18 o 

Indian corn 






254 o 

17417 o 

151585 o 

127 o 

45 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

3248 3 5 

1517 3 25 

1792. England 


13026 o 

87915 o 

818670 o 

38451 o 

4800 o 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

7756 3 6 

18284 12 IO 

Indian corn 




30610 o 

189729 o 

6 o 

6327 16 4 

1793. England 


55118 o 

117439 o 

587043 o 

29270 o 

15847 o 





19892 ii 5 

Indian corn 




5 o 

29878 o 

112416 o 

450 o 

2705 o 



1821 15 8j 



1794. England 

175021 66. 

20895 2 

119289 I 

813814 7 

89899 o 

39490 6 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 

bolls. Ibs. 

13881 5 2 

1 1 103 o 3 

7 61 

Indian corn 

151 66. 


20209 5*- 

I 2 

6466 5 

73692 2 

313 5 

298 I 

cwt. qrs. Ibs. 
13 2 2O 

2800 19 9f 

Buck wheat 





The following is an account of the average price of Corn in England and Wales, by 
the standard Winchester bushel, from the commencement of the Corn Register 
Act in the year 1770. 






s. d. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

J. </. 

s. d. 


5 iof 

4 3i 

3 *\ 

2 I 

3 6J 


6 4 

4 7 

3 2 

2 Oi 

3 9 


6 4* 

4 2 

3 6J 

2 It 

4 4 


6 7 

4 3l 

3 6f 

2 2j 

3 if 


6 Q\ 

4 ij 

3 3 

2 Oj 

3 7 


4 9i 

3 4t 

2 6i 

i io 

3 3l 


5 J 

3 6 

2 6| 


3 6f 


5 3 

3 61 

2 IO 

i of 

3 Si 


4 2| 

2 II 

2 Si 


3 oi 


4 5* 

2 gi 

2 4 


2 9i 


5 7 

3 4t 

2 Ij 


2 I0j 


5 "I 

3 7i 

2 gf 


3 3 


6 7 

4 Si 

3 9l 

.2 Si 

4 4i 


6 ij 

4 o 

3 Si 

2 3* 

4 oj 


5 2f 

3 6 


2 If 

3 10 


4 io 

3 4* 

3 oj 

2 3 

4 if 


5 if 

3 Si 

2 IO 

2 I 

3 "I 


5 7i 

3 Si 

2 9 

I "J 

3 4i 


6 4 f 

3 8f 

2 IOJ 

2 O 

3 4i 


6 i\ 

4 3 

3 2 

2 4 

3 10 


5 io| 

3 ii 

3 zf 

2 si 

3 9f 


5 3i 

3 ii 

3 4 

2 3i 

3 " 


6 o 

4 4i 

3 "1 

2 8} 

4 8 


6 4* 

4 o| 

2 7i 

5 2j 


9 2f 

o o 

4 8 



9 7i 

4 Si 

2 8J 

4 10 


6 6 


3 6 

2 I 

3 3 


6 2 

3 7 

2 S 

3 9 


8 5 


4 Si 

3 5 

5 6J 


14 i 


7 6 

5 2 

8 7 



The great increase of business at Bear Quay, and the incon- 
venience which necessarily attended its transactions, from want 
of room, and a proper situation for the factors and dealers who 
attended the market, induced a number of corn-factors to propose 
building, about the year 1750, an Exchange for their own use. 
A plan was soon arranged, the money raised by a subscription 
(which was divided into eighty shares), and the present building 
soon afterwards erected, which has since been appropriated to the 
corn and seed trade, but principally to the former. The pro- 
prietors delegate the powers of management to a committee, of 
whom it is necessary there should be five present to form an 
efficient meeting. The shares are at present worth something 
more than five hundred pounds. The income of this proprietary 
is derived from letting the stands, or small boxes, to the different 
factors and dealers, who pay about ten guineas per annum : the 
number of these boxes is about sixty-four, and they are usually 
in great request. Indeed the increase of this trade has been 
such within the period of a few years, that the seed trade could 
not be accommodated with sufficient conveniences at this market ; 
in consequence of which another Exchange has been erected, 
nearly opposite to the old one, in Mark-lane, by a spirited 
individual (Mr. Bryan Cocoran), which is distinguished by the 
title of the New Seed and Corn Market. 

Prior to the establishment of the latter, the seedsmen had no 
stands. There is nothing particular in the architecture or plan 
of this market; convenience and simplicity seem principally to 
have been studied. It is entirely covered, and lighted by a large 
skylight, and is in other respects extremely well calculated for 
the intended purpose. There are fifty boxes or stands, which 




let from fourteen to twenty guineas per annum, and amply re- 
munerate the proprietor for the expence of completing this 
useful undertaking. 

It was opened on the i6th September, 1804. 

There is a duty of two-pence per last paid to the city for all 
corn sold in the Exchange, upon the first sale. 



Now in Bond-Street 

IT has been observed by foreign writers upon the polite arts, 
that so long as the impulse of religious enthusiasm to 
excite emulation among artists, and a taste for decorating 
sacred edifices with their productions, are wanting, so long will 
a school of painting be wanted in England. 

The Abbe" Winkelmann, in his History of Arts among the 
Ancients, (torn. i. sect. 2.) treating of the influence of climate 
upon the disposition of a people so far as it respects the arts, 
says, that owing to the absence of this disposition and the effect 
of climate, the English have never yet had a single painter of 
eminence. The French, he says, are in the same predicament 
(excepting only two painters, one of whom is Poussin), notwith- 


standing the great sums which have been expended, and the 
endeavours they have used to obtain perfection. The fallacy 
of this reasoning has been abundantly proved by the progressive 
improvement which has taken place among the artists who have 
flourished in these kingdoms since the period at which this was 
written (about the year 1770) : at the same time, we cannot dis- 
cover any considerable alteration in the sentiments of the nation 
in general as to the propriety of ornamenting our churches with 
paintings ; nor have we experienced any considerable ameliora- 
tion of the climate, that can justify this improvement upon the 
principles laid down by the learned abbe. We can more readily 
account for, by ascribing it to that taste for paintings which has 
been disseminated through this country by the great accession 
of wealth, which, introducing luxury, creates new sources for 
its own gratification, and is the effect as well as the cause of 

Extract of a letter from GESNER to his son, then on his travels at Rome. 

* "At Rome, no doubt, the wonders of art, the beauties of nature, every thing, in 
short, is calculated to excite enthusiasm, and develop the mind : but look over the 
history of artists in former centuries ; observe also those painters who are still living, 
who have raised themselves to superior eminence ; collect all those of different nations, 
who, like you, aspire to reach that goal which our predecessors have attained, and who 
approach it with hasty strides, and learn from them with what continued efforts and 
unremitted labour that artist must pursue his profession who aims at perfection. You 
will doubtless occasionally meet with some fiery spirits, who only advance by sudden 
leaps, whose vanity will not submit to a regular, though troublesome progress ; but you 
will always observe, that by deviating from the right path, they get further from the 
object, instead of approaching it. 

" Lose no time in beginning your studies, and let the principal one be that of the 
human figure, under its most beautiful form ; bestow particular attention also on the 
harmony, truth, and delicacy of colouring ; copy detached groups, single figures, and 
sometimes even parts of figures : but in these different studies always proceed with 


All the arts which have drawing for their common basis, were 
cultivated in England during the middle ages with a superiority 
and success, to which the writers of those times bear ample 
testimony. The discoveries which took place when the altera- 
tion was made in St. Stephen's Chapel, prove something more 
than was even suspected of their merit at a period long before 
the supposed invention of painting in oil by Van Eych. Leo of 
Ostia, in his Chronicle of Mount Cassin, written early in the 
twelfth century (book II. chap, xxxiv.), speaks of a shrine which 
made part of the treasure of that monastery. "Loculus iste 
mirificus argento, auro, gemmisque, Anglico opere subtiliter ac 
pulcherime decoratus." 

The book of the Anniversaries of the Vatican Basilica, page 
345, mentions five suits of silver embroidery, of which three 
were de opere Cypriensi, et unum de opere Anglicano. If the 
treasures of these monasteries and basilicas, which preserved 
the most precious remains of antiquity, and which, at the re- 
vival of the arts, furnished their first models, were thought to 
be honoured by the works of English artists, we may fairly 
presume that these performances struck the eye from their 

unremitting diligence and scrupulous exactness. In a word, exert yourself to the utmost, 
for you have no time to lose." 

This advice, so necessary to be impressed upon the mind of every young artist, seems 
to have been thrown away upon young Gesner ; his studies were of the most desultory 
nature, and his success was, as might be expected, in a proportionate ratio. He was one 
of those fiery spirits that would not submit to a regular, though troublesome progress : 
this will be evident from the inspection of a work published by the proprietor of the 
Microcosm a few years since, when C. Gesner was in London, under the title of 
"Military Evolutions? which bears unequivocal marks of extraordinary genius without 
the necessary attention to labour and study. 


superior fineness, brilliancy, or that elegance of execution which 
at the present period continues so decidedly to characterize the 
works of this nation. Even the partial writer of the exploits 
of William the Conqueror, bears testimony to the skill of the 
English women, and the general excellence of the English 
artists. "Anglicce nationis fcemince multum acer et auri textura, 
egregie viri in omni valent artificio." 

The ornamental splendour of the Romish religion was sup- 
posed to be subservient in some degree to the improvement of 
painting during the time it existed as the national religion : on 
the other hand, it is said, the simplicity which characterizes the 
Protestant faith gives little employment or encouragement to 
the professors of this art. It is true, the fanaticism of the 
Independents banished paintings altogether, even upon glass, 
from the churches where they had survived the rude hands of 
the Reformers. More liberal ideas have since prevailed ; the 
decoration of sacred edifices seems to be less violently opposed 
by fanaticism, and it has ceased to be considered as a breach 
of the second commandment. There is certainly no ground for 
supposing the respect that may be paid in this country to such 
ornaments, will exceed the admiration which is usually excited 
by an inspection of the exquisite performances of our most 
eminent artists. 

One of the most formidable obstacles to the improvement of 
painting (at least in the higher departments), was the great 
encouragement given to portrait-painting, which, from the revival 
of this art about the time of Charles II. to the accession of 
George III. was almost exclusively patronised and rewarded. 
This may be owing, in some measure, to the personal vanity 


of individuals, and the disposition of artists to make their works 
a source of profit rather than fame, which led them to cultivate a 
branch of their profession that returned their assiduities with 
emolument, instead of embodying upon their canvass the splen- 
did achievements which confer immortality upon those who have 
performed, and almost equal honour upon those who record them 
in representations executed with taste, spirit, and expression. 

Whilst artists are content with that remuneration which por- 
trait-painting affords, we shall in vain look for the sublime 
features of bold composition, or the imposing graces of chaste 
and decided elegance. 

But wealth, the parent of luxury, introduces refinement, which, 
whatever may be its effect upon the morals of a people, generally 
contributes to the promotion of the fine arts, by the encourage- 
ment which it affords ; this excites competition, which can alone 
produce excellence. The establishment of the Royal Academy 
afforded the opportunity of a more general acquaintance with the 
arts in this country, and the annual exhibitions were not only a 
spur to the artists, but soon became a medium through which 
a more extensive taste for its productions was excited and en- 
couraged. It is not wonderful, that, in a commercial country 
like Great Britain, even this exhibition should be associated with 
the idea of making it a source of profit as well as honour. 

At the commencement of this sera (for so it may be considered 
with respect to the English school), the state of painting in water 
colours was certainly at a very low ebb, and might perhaps have 
justified a law of the society, which excluded from academic 
honours those painters who exhibited works in water colours 
only. In the present state of this branch of the art, it may 


be worth while to consider, whether the reasons which prevailed 
at the period to which we allude, are still in existence. We are 
the more inclined to press this subject upon the consideration of 
the parties concerned, when we recollect, that some of the most 
eminent of the academy owe no small portion of their celebrity 
to performances in water colours. 

In the annual exhibition at Somerset- House, it is well known 
that the best room (indeed the only one calculated to exhibit a 
numerous assemblage of paintings,) is solely appropriated for 
pictures in oil. If this had been the only circumstance by 
which the professors of this department had felt themselves 
aggrieved, their complaints might have been considered as un- 
reasonable ; but, besides that their works were disposed in the 
smaller rooms, they often suffered by an arrangement (over 
which they had no controul, and in which they were thus 
excluded any participation,) that brought their pictures in con- 
tact with many oil paintings, which either want of space or 
influence had likewise driven from the great room. It is almost 
unnecessary to mention the obvious disadvantage which must 
attend paintings in water colours exhibited under such circum- 
stances. It cannot escape the most careless observer, that a 
painting, unavoidably circumscribed by the size and expence of 
the glass, the materials of which it is composed not admitting 
of that depth of shade, or force of colouring, which produces 
effect at a certain distance, and a considerable portion of whose 
beauty is derived from a minute attention to parts, accuracy of 
delineation, and a combination of latent excellences, that require 
to be investigated before they are enjoyed, must suffer consider- 
ably in the estimation even of good judges, when opposed to 


half an acre of canvass, covered with the strongest tints, enriched 
with the most gaudy colours, and glazed with a varnish calculated 
to heighten the already too powerful effect. We are informed, 
that artists who have finished even oil paintings of considerable 
merit, and sent them to the exhibition, having discovered that 
they were placed in so dangerous and offensive a neighbourhood, 
have been obliged to retouch their pictures, and "give a browner 
horror to the shade" merely to counteract the effect of this juxta- 

The great assemblage of chefs d'ceuvre being always looked 
for in the principal room, was likewise calculated to excite a 
degree of prejudice in the minds of the less enlightened, against 
works of a description invariably excluded from the place of 
honour. We do not mean to insinuate, that influence has any 
share in determining the situation where the paintings are re- 
spectively placed, although we have certainly observed works of 
the greatest merit find their way to the inferior rooms. 

We can fairly suppose, that considerations such as these may 
have influenced the persons who proposed the original design 
of the present establishment ; in addition to which, without any 
reflection upon the artists, we may suppose the possibility of 
deriving some profit from the exhibition of their works, after 
defraying the expences of the establishment, to have had its 
particular influence. The circumstance of exhibiting their works 
to greater advantage, and thereby increasing the facility of sale 
by such arrangements as the first page of their catalogue 
announces, has, we are given to understand, been attended with 
a success beyond the most sanguine expectation of the artists 


Among the rewards which have attended these exertions (we 
include the result of their four exhibitions in the years 1805- 
6-7-8), perhaps we ought not to reckon as the least flattering, 
those expressions of almost involuntary surprise and satisfaction 
with which foreigners have accompanied their view of works 
produced by materials hitherto considered as insufficient to pro- 
duce a picture. But the patronage of the rich and the liberal 
has been extended in a more substantial manner ; the sums they 
have given for many of the works exhibited by this society, rival 
the prices paid for any other kind of paintings. 

We have been favoured by one of the members with a general 
outline of the constitution of this society. Its affairs are under 
the management of a president, treasurer, secretary, and com- 
mittee, who are chosen annually by ballot. Every member 
usually resident within a certain distance of town, is eligible, 
though the first three officers may be re-elected from year to 
year. The two junior members of the committee relinquish their 
seats at every anniversary, in order to make way for two others, 
and cannot again be elected till every other eligible member has 
served. The present members are, 

Mr. J. GLOVER, President. Mr. R. R. REINAGLE, Treasurer. Mr. R. HILLS, Secretary. 

Mr. G. Barrett. Mr. W. Havell. Mr. N. Pocock. Mr. J. Smith. 
J. J. Chalon. T. Heaphy. W. H. Pyne. J. Varley. 

J. Christall. J. Holworthy. S. Rigaud. C. Varley. 

W. S. Gilpin. F. Nicholson. S. Shelley. W. F. Wells. 


Miss Byrne. Mr. W. Delamotte. Mr. A. Pugin. Mr. W. Turner. 

Mr. J. A. Atkinson. P. S. Munn. F. Stevens. 


The society, when its number is completed, will consist of 
twenty-four members and twelve associate exhibitors : these 
last stand in the same sort of relative situation with the mem- 
bers, that the associates of the Royal Academy do with the 

They have no share in the management of the society's 
concerns, nor in the profits of the exhibition, but they are never 
called on to contribute to any of the expences ; their works have 
the same chance of sale with those of the members, and from 
this list, as vacancies occur, the new members are always elected. 

Every candidate for associate exhibitorship must be proposed 
by a member, and a majority of two thirds of the members 
present at the ballot, is necessary for the election of the 

They reserve the power, as in most other societies, of ex- 
pelling obnoxious members ; but this can never be done except 
by the concurring votes, by ballot, of at least three fourths of 
the members. 

The profits of the exhibition, after the payment of contingent 
expences, are divided into as many shares as there are members, 
each member's share being proportioned to the aggregate value 
of his works. 

Ladies associate exhibitors, as they can never share actively 
in the management of the society's affairs, are not eligible as 
members ; but from the moment of their election, they become 
entitled to partake of the profits of the exhibition in the same 
proportion as the members, while they are exempt from the 
trouble of official duties, and from every responsibility whatever 
on account of any losses incurred by the society. 

II. D 


If the object of this exhibition had merely been to promote 
the cultivation of this particular branch of the art, or if this 
object had been simply connected with another (which seems 
very fairly to have arisen out of the preceding), namely, the 
making it a source of profit to the artists concerned, we should 
have been inclined to recommend a plan more extensive in its 
nature, and more liberal in its arrangements, and we think as 
likely to have answered as well, if not better, even in these 
points : for it appears to us, that however convenient it may 
have been to restrict the number of persons who should compose 
the society originally, or to limit at a subsequent period the 
number who should derive benefit from the exhibition ; yet we 
cannot discover upon what principle other artists of great 
eminence and respectability have been prevented from exhibit- 
ing their works, who did not wish to derive any advantage from 
the institution beyond the means which it afforded of shewing 
their performances to the public, and thereby increasing the 
opportunities of selling them. We can readily conceive, that 
when such an arrangement was first proposed, many artists who 
were less sanguine in their dispositions than the original pro- 
jectors, might hesitate to come forward and engage in an 
undertaking, the expence of which was certain, whilst its success 
was doubtful ; but when the approbation of the public had 
sanctioned the plan, and there was great probability of its 
continuing to merit that approbation, we think it would have 
been judicious to have admitted a greater number of members, 
or at least to have opened their doors to a greater number of 
exhibitors. The public must be fed with variety as well as 
excellence ; and the limited number of artists who compose this 


society, notwithstanding the utmost exertions of their talents and 
industry united, cannot be expected to compete with success, for 
any long period, with other societies who increase the number 
of their exhibitors by a more enlarged plan. The effect of this 
has been already felt, and a society upon a more comprehensive 
scale has been formed in the spring of the present year, under 
the title of Associated Artists in Water Colours. Their first 
exhibition was held at the great rooms No. 20, Lower Brook- 
street, Grosvenor-square, and met with encouragement similar 
to that which the prior establishment had experienced. 

The laws of this society do not limit the number of its mem- 
bers, which is proposed to be increased by those among the 
associate exhibitors whose works are most conspicuous. Per- 
formances in miniature form a distinguished part in the catalogue 
of their works ; and ladies are admitted members, who are en- 
titled to a vote on all occasions, which vote may be given in 
writing. Its laws in other respects are very similar to those of 
the other society. The members are, 

Mr. W. WOOD, President. Mr. J. GREEN, Treasurer. Mr. J. PAPWORTH, Secretary. 
Mr. W. S. Bennett. Mr. J. Holmes. Mr. A. Robertson. Mr. W. Walker. 
P. Dewint. J. Laporte. C. Smith. W. Westall. 

Mrs. Green. S. Owen. Miss E. Smith. H. W. Williams. 

Mr. Huet Villiers. F. Nash. Mr.W.J. Thompson. A.Wilson. 

Many artists of great merit in the country, whose works might 
have been otherwise confined to the small circle of their friends 
and acquaintance, or whose merits could not be fairly appreciated 
at a great distance from the capital, will now be able to call the 
public attention to their paintings ; and the man of taste and 
fortune will have the opportunity of drawing forth modest genius 
from obscurity, and of gratifying those exquisite feelings which 


accompany the pleasure of encouraging and rewarding indigent 
merit. In every point of view the public are benefitted by this 
rivalship, and are certainly much indebted to the spirit of the first 
projectors, for a plan which is likely to prove ultimately beneficial 
to the artists and to the country. 


THE print is intended to represent the dreadful fire which 
took place on the $d March, 1791, at the Albion Mills, 
on the Surry side of Blackfriars bridge. We have 
selected this from the many objects of a similar nature which 
frequently occur in this great metropolis, because the representa- 
tion afforded an opportunity of more picturesque effect ; the 
termination of the bridge, the extensive area in front, and 
St. Paul's in the back ground, contribute so many interesting 
parts to a representation which is altogether great and awful. 

This fire raged with such unabating fury, that in about half 
an hour the whole of that extensive edifice, together with an 
immense quantity of flour and grain, was reduced to ashes ; the 
corner wing, occupied as the house and offices of the superin- 
tendent, only escaping the sad calamity, from the thickness of 
the party-wall. It was low water at the time the fire was first 
discovered, and before the engines were collected, their assistance 
was ineffectual ; for the flames burst out in so many different 
directions, and with such incredible fury and intolerable heat, 


that it was impossible to approach on any side, till the roof and 
interior part of the building tumbling in, completed the general 
conflagration in a column of fire so awfully grand, as to illuminate 
for a while the whole horizon. The wind being easterly, the 
flames were blown across Albion-place, the houses on the west 
side of which were considerably scorched, and the inhabitants 
greatly alarmed. In the lane adjoining the mills, one house was 
burnt to the ground, and others considerably damaged. 

Fortunately no lives were lost, but the property consumed was 
very great ; four thousand sacks of corn were on the premises, of 
which only thirty were not destroyed. 

The property was insured as follows : 

At the Hand-in-Hand ... ..6000 Brought forward .21000 

Sun 5000 At the Royal Exchange 5000 

Phoenix 5000 On Stock 1 5000 

Union 5000 


Carried over 21000 

But the largest insurance was at Lloyd's, to the amount of 


In a political sense, there is no country upon earth where the 
security for life and property is so complete and extensive as in 
Great Britain, and of the peculiar facility with which property of 
all kinds, from the most trifling to the most extensive, is insured 
against fire, foreigners can form but a very inadequate idea from 
any establishments of this nature in their own country. That 
our readers may form some idea of the extent of the insurance 
business, and its progressive increase, in this country, we have 
subjoined a table of the duties paid by the respective companies 
since the year 1782. 


Account of Duty received on Insurances by the several FIRE-OFFICES of LONDON and 
WESTMINSTER, from the Commencement, Midsummer 1782, to Christmas 1807. 










. j. d. 

t. d. 

. ,. d. 

. *. d. 

. s. d. 

. i. d. 

s. d. 


28517 7 8 

585 2 I 

6461 14 9 

11763 3 6 

4250 4 i 

3361 9 8 


15 2 


59032 19 6 

2943 o 10 

11977 16 ii 

17300 13 4 

879014 5 

4442 i 7 




47451 i 10 

4125 3 4 

9991 10 ii 

1179518 5 

7633 4 7 

3012 2 II 


15 o 


51486 13 ii 

655015 9 

1134019 2 

10409 18 7 

7729 2 7 

317019 3 


9 5 


48067 2 10 

8925 10 i 

12125 7 i 

9400 8 8 

7368 3 4 

3128 12 10 


15 8 


48656 7 I 

11710 7 o 

1329919 2 

8463 3 10 

7246 n 4 

2901 14 6 


7 5 


49520 16 9 

14707 8 7 

13673 7 3 

8019 5 6 

703015 7 

2996 1 6 o 


15 6 


49529 2 4 

17035 I 4 

14703 9 10 

7698 i 2 

6633 5 o 

2991 i 8 


19 2 


5138813 7 

18598 2 10 

1605719 3 

8231 18 4 

6701 19 o 

3012 12 3 


10 8 


53572H 4 

20197 4 o 

16388 10 o 

8229 10 7 

6831 311 

321511 4 


12 7 


56640 1 8 8 

24655 4 2 

20050 3 3 

8591 o i 

7088 1 6 7 

3206 13 n 


3 o 


56704 i 5 

25921 9 8 

20299 I2 6 

757719 9 

6178 14 o 

3285 3 3 




5762917 9 

27781 13 i 

20742 i 8 

7050 1 8 4 

6583 on 

3096 8 i 


13 8 


58559 7 9 

28780 3 4 

22773 3 8 

682413 6 

6291 9 10 

3268 ii 4 


i i 


595" 3 9 

3097816 7 

22701 17 4 

6488 i o 

5759 7 o 

3355 4 6 


18 2 


64245 9 10 

34405 15 6 

26845 I2 8 

10051 17 5 

7921 17 9 

4166 on 


2 8 


82690 3 6 

44881 2 I 

32450 10 7 

Io66l II 2 

981619 2 

5579 H 4 


7 7 


77065 o 7 

43691 3 o 

33058 3 6 

8384 6 ii 

8441 14 6 

494415 9 


i 5 


77628 4 i 

48025 17 II 

35475 19 o 

8564 3 5 

755713 5 

5297 2 9 




80314 6 4 

5'36s 4 5 

36729 6 10 

7951 n 8 

7524 18 6 

5677 710 


6 3 


81705 ii ii 

49954 oio 

3771017 6 

7665 3 2 

7907 13 7 

5933 18 10 


19 6 


77589 8 3 

5055619 4 

37844 i 7 

7961 311 

8251 2 9 

5102 10 4 


13 o 


80205 3 5 

4953317 3 

3818211 5 

9069 14 2 

867012 3 

47I5I5 6 


12 8 


92845 3 i i 

59162 3 10 

44095 13 3 

I2I2OII 3 

12277 13 3 

6210 3 5 


3 i 


95269 8 8 

60767 10 2 


9728 6 i 

10602 3 5 

6117 18 o 


4 4 


92443 6 2 

61765 2 5 

45067 1 6 5 

9940 2 

10525 10 o 

6852 6 2 


10 3 










. *. d. 

. *. d. 

. i. d. 

*. d. 

. s. d. 

. s. d. 


5319 9" 


10651 12 5 



13848 3 3 


17364 12 2 


16814 4 4 

7624 1 1 10 

372617 9 



16691 o o 

14626 19 5 




18744 2 6 

23141 511 

17248 IO 2 

1675 3 i 


19731 16 8 

27731 17 8 

19738 8 i 

8179 i 4 


20281 10 n 

30018 8 4 

20465 19 2 

11192 10 8 

3031 211 

1631 ii 9 



With respect to the terms* of each office, we may observe 
generally, that insurances can be effected upon the same terms 
at either of them ; the only distinction that we are aware of is, 
that in some offices, out of the profits arising from the general 
business, a fund is created, of which the insurers themselves 
become entitled to a dividend, in proportion to the amount of 
the premiums they have paid, after a certain period. So long 

* Terms of Insurance of Buildings, Farming Stock, Shipping, and all other Property, 
from Loss or Damage by Fire. 

COMMON INSURANCES. Brick or stone buildings, with party-walls, covered with 
slate, tile, or metal, in which no hazardous trades are carried on, or hazardous goods 

Goods not hazardous. Goods not hazardous in brick or stone buildings, with party- 
walls, covered with slate, tile, or metal, in which no hazardous trades are carried on. 
Wearing apparel, linen, printed books, plate, and liquors in private use, may be insured 
under the general description or denomination of furniture, without a specification of 
each. Watches, jewels, and trinkets, in private use, must be separately described, but 
the premium on them does not exceed the premium on goods not hazardous. 

HAZARDOUS INSURANCES. Timber or plaster buildings, brick and timber buildings, 
and buildings without party-walls of stone or brick, covered with slate, tile, or metal, in 
which no hazardous trades are carried on, or hazardous goods deposited. Brick or stone 
buildings, in which hazardous trades are carried on. Thatched buildings not having a 
chimney, and not adjoining to any building having a chimney. 

Hazardous Goods. Goods not hazardous deposited in hazardous buildings. The 
stock of hazardous trades in brick or stone buildings. Pictures, horses, harness, car- 
riages, and fodder, in buildings not hazardous. Ships in port, and their cargoes, ships 
building or repairing, barges, and other small craft, on rivers and canals, and goods on 

DOUBLY HAZARDOUS INSURANCES. Hazardous buildings, in which hazardous trades 
are carried on. Thatched buildings having a chimney, or adjoining to a building con- 
taining one. 

Doubly hazardous Goods. The stock of hazardous trades in hazardous buildings. 
Pictures, horses, carriages, and fodder, in hazardous buildings. China and glass. 

Upon common insurances is charged an annual premium of 2s. per cent. hazardous 
insurances, 35. per cent. and doubly hazardous insurances, 55. per cent. 


as the business of the offices is carried on with prudence, and 
therefore with success, this plan operates in reduction of such 
premiums ; but should loss to any considerable amount take place 
beyond the capital retained to answer such events, it has the 
effect of involving a general partnership of the insurers, who 
become (of course) liable to a mutual contribution to make up 
any deficiency. 

Other offices, again, are entitled by charters to be called upon 
for losses to no greater extent than the sum originally pledged 
as capital. 

Others, again, are formed by a subscription for shares, ex- 
tending to a certain sum only, and the parties are mutually bound 
to contribute in proportion to the number of shares they hold ; 
but in the event before supposed, this agreement among them- 
selves does not deprive the public who insure at such offices, of 
the right to call upon the proprietor even of a single share for 
the whole amount of their loss, in case the capital subscribed 
should be insufficient. 

It is very far from our intention by this statement to insinuate 
any thing to the prejudice of offices formed upon this plan, 
but state it, because a contrary opinion respecting joint-stock 
companies has pretty generally prevailed ; and although from 
institutions of this nature very distant indeed must be any such 
apprehension, yet the ephemeral establishments which we hear 
every day proposed, and respecting which the public cannot be 
too cautious, incline us to be among the number of those who 
are desirous of putting them upon their guard against specula- 
tions of so doubtful, and, it would appear, of so dangerous a 
nature. We subjoin a list of fires within the bills of mortality 


during the year 1807, which affords the strongest proof of the 
necessity and advantage of these establishments. 

1807. Fires. ~Z l ^>7- Fires. 

January 42 48 Brought forward... 193 217 

February 38 54 July 37 20 

March 36 42 August 28 15 

April 32 36 September 28 17 

May 29 22 October 24 23 

June 16 15 November 29 21 

December 36 43 

Carried over 193 217 

375 356 

The number of fires may be considered nearly correct, but the chimney alarms 
are not probably more than a third of the true number. 

The above statement is given from the books of the British Fire-Office, for 
the year ending December 31, 1807. 

B. F. O. August 13, 1808. WILLIAM KING, Inspector. 

To extinguish fires with a greater expedition than by the 
means usually employed, has long been a desideratum with the 
public, and persons of considerable talents, in various parts, 
have directed their attention to this object. Zachary Greyl was 
the first whose projects for this purpose were attended with any 
success. He contrived an engine of sufficient power, and man- 
aged without much difficulty, with which he extinguished the 
fire in buildings (to the satisfaction of many respectable persons 
of the first rank who attended the experiment), by means of 
explosion ; and he offered to make the secret public, in con- 
sideration of a considerable sum of money, for which he 


stipulated : but this proposal was not attended with any success, 
and he died without disclosing it. A short time after his death, 
the method was discovered by a person who had possessed 
himself of Greyl's papers. The plan was tried before the King 
of Poland, and a considerable number of the nobility, at Dresden, 
and the secret was purchased for a large sum. It was afterwards 
tried at Paris, and at several other places. The process was 
simple : a vessel was provided large enough to contain a con- 
siderable quantity of water, in the middle of which an iron case 
was placed, filled with gunpowder, and properly secured against 
wet, from which a tube communicated (through the head of the 
vessel) with a match made of materials easily combustible. This 
vessel was to be conveyed into the building on fire : the con- 
sequence was, that the explosion occasioned by the gunpowder, 
drove the water with considerable force every way, and although 
the room might be flaming in every part at the instant of its 
going off, the fire was immediately extinguished. But although 
great expectations were formed, yet the benefit was by no means 
general ; the fire in a room was easily put out, but when the 
roof had fallen in, or the flames had communicated very far, or 
the top was open, it must be obvious this plan could not 

Chimneys on fire are readily extinguished by completely 
stopping up the throat or breast of the chimney with a wet 
blanket, or by means of a register or chimney-board, or indeed 
any thing which will entirely prevent the current of air passing 

Various plans have likewise been suggested with the view to 
check the progress of fire. Dr. Hales proposed to stop it by 


covering the floors of the adjoining rooms with earth about an 
inch thick. In the years 1775 and 1776, Mr. David Hartley 
made several experiments to prove the efficacy of a plan which 
he had invented, and for which he obtained a patent, and Parlia- 
ment voted a certain sum to defray the expence of the numerous 
experiments which were made with a view to restrain the spread 
of fire in buildings. For this purpose thin iron plates were well 
nailed to the top of the joists, &c. the edges of the sides and ends 
being lapped over, folded together, and hammered close. Par- 
titions, stairs, and doors, have been defended in the same manner, 
and plates applied to one side have been found sufficient. The 
plates are so thin as not to prevent the floor from being nailed on 
the joists, in the same manner as if this preventive had not been 
employed. The plates are kept from rust by being painted, or 
varnished with oil and turpentine. The expence of this addition, 
when extended through a whole building, does not exceed 5 per 
cent. This patent has long since expired. The same preventive 
may be applied to ships, and to many of the machines employed 
in our manufactories.* 

* The Earl of Stanhope also discovered and published a very simple and effectual 
method of securing every kind of building against fire. This method he has divided 
into three parts, viz. under-flooring, extra-lathing, and inter-securing. The method of 
under-flooring is either single or double. In single under-flooring, a common strong 
lath of oak or fir, about one fourth of an inch thick, should be nailed against each side 
of every joist, and of every main timber supporting the floor which is to be secured ; 
other similar laths are then to be nailed along the whole length of the joists, with their 
ends butting against each other. The top of each of these laths or fillets ought to be at 
one inch and a half below the top of the joists or timbers against which they are nailed, 
and they will thus form a sort of small ledge on each side of the joists. These fillets are 
to be well bedded in a rough plaster hereafter mentioned, when they are nailed on, so 



THE Fleet Prison is situated on the east side of Fleet 
market, a little to the south of Fleet-lane, and was 
originally so called from the river Fleet running by it. 
It was destroyed in the riots of 1780, and was immediately 

that there may be no interval between them and the joists ; and the same plaster ought 
to be spread with a trowel upon the tops of all the fillets, and along the sides of that 
part of the joists which is between the top of the fillets and the upper edge of the joists. 
In order to fill up the intervals between the joists that support the floor, short pieces of 
common lath, whose lengths are equal to the width of these intervals, should be laid in 
the contrary direction to the joists, and close together in a row, so as to touch one another ; 
their ends must rest upon the fillets, and they ought to be well bedded in the rough plaster, 
but are not to be fastened with nails. They must then be covered with one thick coat of 
the rough plaster, which is to be spread over them to the level of the tops of the joists, 
and in a day or two this plaster should be trowelled over close to the sides of the joists, 
without covering the tops of the joists with it. In the method of double-flooring, the 
fillets and short pieces of laths are applied in the manner already described ; but the 
coat of rough plaster ought to be little more than half as thick as that in the former 
method. Whilst this rough plaster is laid on, some more of the short pieces of laths 
above-mentioned must be laid in the intervals between the joists upon the first coat, and 
be dipped deep in it ; they should be laid as close as possible to each other, and in the 
same direction with the first layer of short laths. Over this second layer of short laths 
there must be spread another coat of rough plaster, which should be trowelled level with 
the tops of the joists, without rising above them. The rough plaster may be made of 
coarse lime and hair ; or, instead of hair, hay chopped to about three inches in length, 
may be substituted with advantage. One measure of common rough sand, two measures 
of slaked lime, and three measures of chopped hay, will form in general a very good 


rebuilt in its present state with brick and stone. The court 
into which you enter is the whole length of the building, which 
is about ninety feet. Passing through the lobby, you enter the 
inner court, where the prisoners entertain themselves with tennis, 
fives, and other amusements, as represented in the plate. 
The building is separated into five divisions : 

ist. The cellar floor, containing the kitchen, cellar, and fourteen 

proportion when sufficiently beaten up together in the manner of common mortar : the 
hay should be put in after the two other ingredients are well beaten up together with 
water. This plaster should be made stiff ; and when the flooring-boards are required to 
be laid down very soon, a fourth or fifth part of quicklime in powder, formed by dropping 
a small quantity of water on the limestone a little while before it is used, and well mixed 
with this rough plaster, will cause it to be very fast. If any cracks appear in the rough 
plaster-work near the joist when it is thoroughly dry, they ought to be closed by washing 
them over with a brush wet with mortar-wash : this wash may be prepared by putting 
two measures of quicklime, and one of common sand, in a pail, and stirring the mixture 
with water, till the water becomes of the consistence of a thin jelly. Before the flooring- 
boards are laid, a small quantity of very dry common sand should be strewed over the 
plaster-work, and struck smooth with a hollow rule, moved in the direction of the joists, 
so that it may lie rounding between each pair of joists. The plaster-work and sand 
should be perfectly dry before the boards are laid, for fear of the dry rot. The method 
of under-flooring may be successfully applied to a wooden staircase, but no sand is to be 
laid upon the rough plaster-work. The method of extra-lathing may be applied to ceil- 
ing joists, to sloping roofs, and to wooden partitions. The third method, which is that 
of inter-securing, is very similar to that of under-flooring, but no sand is afterwards to be 
laid upon it. Inter-securing is applicable to the same parts of a building as the method 
of extra-lathing, but it is seldom necessary. The author of this invention made several 
experiments, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of these methods. In most houses it 
is only necessary to secure the floors ; and the extra expence of under-flooring, including 
all materials, was at that time only about nine-pence per square yard, and with the use of 
quicklime, a little more. The extra expence of extra-lathing is no more than sixpence 
per square yard for the timber side, wall, and partitions ; but for the ceiling, about nine- 
pence per square yard : but in most houses no extra-lathing is necessary. 


2nd. The chapel gallery, which contains the tap-rooms and 

fourteen rooms. 

3d. The coffee-room gallery, and twenty-four rooms. 
4th. The infirmary gallery, and twenty-seven rooms. 
5th. The upper gallery, which contains twenty-seven rooms. 

The passages or galleries run the whole length of the building. 
The rooms measure fourteen feet and a half by twelve and a half. 

The number of prisoners usually confined in the Fleet is about 
two hundred and fifty, and the number who have the benefit of 
the rules is about fifty more. 

The keeper is called the warden of the Fleet, and his fees from 
the prisoners, for turning the key, for chamber-rent, &c. amount 
to a considerable sum. 

This prison belongs to the Court of Common Pleas, and hither 
persons are committed for contempt of orders, &c. in the High 
Court of Chancery ; or upon debt, when, by a writ of habeas 
corpus, they remove themselves thither from any other prison. 

The rules or liberties of the Fleet are, all the north side of 
Ludgate-hill, and the Old Bailey up to Fleet-lane ; down that 
lane into the market, and then turning the corner on the left, all 
the east side along the Fleet Prison to the bottom of Ludgate- 

The ditch was cleansed some years since at a considerable 
expence, in the performing of which work, at the depth of 
fourteen feet, were found several Roman utensils ; and a little 
deeper, a great quantity of Roman coins, in silver, copper, brass, 
and other metals, but none in gold. At Holborn bridge were 
found two brazen lares, about four inches long, one a Bacchus, 


the other a Ceres. It is a probable conjecture, that these were 
thrown in by the affrighted Romans at the approach of the en- 
raged Boadicea, who soon took ample revenge on her insulting 
conquerors. Here were also found numbers of Saxon antiquities, 
spurs, weapons, keys, seals, &c. ; also medals, crosses, and cruci- 
fixes, which might likewise have been flung in on occasion of some 
alarm. This canal was afterwards neglected, and becoming a 
nuisance, was filled up, and a sewer formed beneath, to convey 
the water to the river. The fine market which extends the 
whole length of the old ditch, rose in its place, in 1733, in which 
year an act was passed, to empower the lord mayor and citizens 
to fill the ditch at their own expence, and to vest the fee simple 
of the ground in them and their successors for ever. The present 
noble approach to Blackfriars bridge, and the well-built opening 
of Chatham-place, were but a few years since a muddy ditch. 
This had been the mouth of the creek, which, as Stow informs 
us, in 1307 was of depth and width sufficient, "that ten or twelve 
ships navies at once, with merchandizes, were wont to come to the 
aforesaid bridge Fleete." It must be recollected, that at this 
period there were drawbridges upon London bridge, through 
which ships of a certain size might pass, and discharge their 
cargoes in the mouth of the river. 

This prison was founded as early as the first of Richard I. ; it 
was also the place of confinement for such as had incurred the 
displeasure of that arbitrary court, the Star Chamber. This 
prison became such a scene of cruelty, that, in the year 1729, a 
most benevolent set of gentlemen, prototypes of the good Howard, 
formed themselves into a committee, to search into the horrors of 
the gloomy gaol. 


Unpitied and unheard, where misery moans, 
Where sickness pines, where thirst and hunger burn, 
And poor misfortune feels the lash of vice : 
While in the land of liberty (the land 
Whose every street and public meeting glow 
With open freedom,) little tyrants rag'd, 
Snatch'd the lean morsel from the starving mouth ; 
Tore from cold wint'ry limbs the tatter'd weed, 
Even robb'd them of the last of comforts, sleep ; 
The freeborn Briton to the dungeon chain'd, 
Or, as the lust of cruelty prevail'd, 
At pleasure mark'd him with inglorious stripes, 
And crush'd out lives by secret, barbarous ways. 


All these barbarities were realized. The House of Commons, 
the year preceding, had taken up the enquiries, and found that 
Huggins, warden of the Fleet, and Bambridge, his deputy, and 
William Action, turnkey, had exercised most shocking cruelties. 
Those monsters were tried for the murder of five unhappy men, 
who died under the most horrid treatment from them : yet, not- 
withstanding the prosecution was recommended from the throne, 
and conducted by the ablest lawyers, to the concern of all good 
men, these wretches escaped their merited punishment. Since 
this period the management of the prison has undergone a 
material alteration for the better ; indeed the laudable philan- 
thropy of Mr. Howard has excited a spirit of enquiry into these 
receptacles of misery and wickedness, which is an honour to the 
age we live in, and to human nature itself. 

The tapster is no longer permitted to rent the tap, nor to hold 
any rooms in the prison to let out to hire, but is merely a servant 
of the warden, dismissable at his pleasure. 


We add a copy of the rules and orders for the government of 
this prison. 


IT is ordered, That all and singular the orders or rules here under wrote and 
established, pursuant to an act of Parliament made and published in the second 
year of the reign of our said lord the king, intituled An Act for the Relief of 
Debtors with respect to the Imprisonment of their Persons, be well, strictly, and truly 
observed and kept, as well by the warden of the prison of our lord the king of the 
Fleet, and all his officers and servants, as by all prisoners who now are, or at any 
time hereafter shall be, committed to the custody of the said warden. 

And it is further ordered, That this rule, with all and every the rules or orders 
aforesaid, shall be fixed up in the hall of the said prison, for the use, benefit, and 
inspection of the prisoners detained in the aforesaid prison. 


Constitutions and orders renewed and established touching the government of the 
Fleet Prison, by Sir Robert Catlyn, Knt. chief justice of the King's Bench ; Sir 
William Cordell, Knt. master of the Rolls ; Sir James Dyer, Knt. chief justice 
of the Common Pleas; Sir Edward Saunders, Knt. chief baron of the Exchequer; 
and others, by virtue of a commission under the great seal of England, bearing 
date the 3d day of June, in the third year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; and 
afterwards reviewed and exemplified under the great seal, the ist day of February, 
in the thirty-seventh year of the same reign ; and again declared and established 
as rules and orders by which the said prison of the Fleet should be governed, by 
letters patent granted to Sir Jeremy Whichcot, of the office of warden of the 
Fleet, in the nineteenth year of the reign of King Charles the Second. 

i. That it may be lawful to the said warden, or his deputy, to appoint so many 
of the household servants as to either of them shall seem good, to open and shut 
the two utter gates of the Fleet at such hours as the gates of Ludgate and Newgate 
are accustomed to be opened and shut; and the said persons to carry in their hands 
halberts, bills, or any other weapon, as shall seem good unto the said warden or 
deputy, within his precinct or liberty. 

ii. That it is and shall be lawful to the said warden and his deputy, to take order 
from time to time, that no person coming there do carry any weapon further than 
n. E 


the porter's lodge there, be he a stranger or other, unless they be licensed so 
to do by the discretion of such as the same warden shall appoint to keep the gate 

in. That it may be lawful for the said warden, or his deputy, and so many of his 
household as shall be thought needful, to keep watch in harness or otherwise within 
his precinct at all times, as he shall see cause for his better safeguard, if he shall 
suspect any prisoner within his custody to intend to make an escape. 

iv. That it may be lawful for the said warden to take order at all times for such 
money as shall be gathered at the box, or otherwise generously given to poor men 
there for the distribution thereof amongst them, if any contention shall arise ; and 
that the said poor men shall always keep one key of the said box, and another key 
to be at the warden's appointment. 

Orders made by the Right Honourable Sir Edward Herbert, Knt. lord chief 
justice of his majesty's Court of Common Pleas at Westminster, and the rest 
of the justices of the said court, Friday, the i yth day of February, anno Domini 
1687, concerning his majesty's prison of the Fleet. 

v. If the prisoners on the master's side refuse, or be not able to pay their 
chamber-rent, then and in such case the warden has liberty to turn them out of his 
or her chamber into the wards ; but no prisoner whatsoever to be confined under 
the pretence of non-payment of chamber-rent, but all of them to have liberty of 
walking in the fore-yard, hall, and cellar of the house in the day-time without 
interruption ; the ward gates in the day-time to stand constantly open, and to be 
opened (viz.) at five o'clock in the morning in the summer, and seven in the 

And the said justices do further order, that the warden shall be at liberty to 
shut the ward gates at nine of the clock at night in the winter time, and ten in the 
summer, if he so think fit, provided he keep a watchman constantly to attend 
there, to let out and in such persons as shall have occasion to go to the necessary- 
house, they returning as soon as he or she has done there. 

vi. That the warden shall not for the future detain or imbezil any prisoner's 
goods, but that the said warden has liberty to detain the person of such prisoner 
or prisoners after they are discharged by their creditors, until all lawful fees and 
dues shall be fully paid and satisfied. 

vii. That the warden shall with all convenient speed make and provide a 
confined room or dungeon in the wards, as it was before the great fire of London, 


for the confinement of persons endeavouring to make their escapes, or guilty of 
any other great misdemeanor, that the general quietness and liberty of the rest of 
their fellow prisoners may not be restrained or suffer thereby. 

And the persons whose names are hereunto subscribed, having reviewed and 
considered the said rules and orders, and being informed that a confined room 
was provided, according to the said last-mentioned order, and that the same is 
boarded, wholesome, and dry, do order and declare, that the rules and orders before- 
mentioned, shall continue to be rules and orders for the better government of the 
Fleet Prison, and be observed accordingly. 

And whereas some farther regulations are proper and necessary to be made for 
the better government of the said prison, the persons whose names are hereunto 
subscribed do further order, 

vni. That the warden of the Fleet do keep the chapel of the Fleet in good 
repair, and take care that divine service be performed, and the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper administered therein at the usual and proper times, according to the 
rites and ceremonies of the church of England ; and all prisoners are required to 
attend at the times aforesaid. 

ix. And it is hereby further ordered, that no chaplain of the Fleet, or any 
clergyman being a prisoner within the walls or rules of the Fleet, do presume to 
marry any person without licence within the prison or rules of the Fleet, and that 
the warden and his officers do use their utmost diligence to prevent all such 

x. That the warden do cause the stocks to be kept up in the said prison (as 
has been anciently practised) for the punishment of such prisoners as shall 
blaspheme the name of God, be guilty of prophane cursing or swearing, or shall 
behave themselves in a disorderly manner. 

xi. That no prisoner do take possession of any chamber within the prison, but 
with the consent of the warden, or his deputy, or pull down any partition, or 
make any other material alteration there, without the consent of the warden or his 
deputy ; but that the disposal and appointment of the chambers or rooms within 
the said prison be in the warden, or his deputy, only ; yet so as neither of them 
-do turn any prisoner out of possession, who shall be rightfully possessed of a 
chamber, without reasonable cause : and that every prisoner, on his or her dis- 
charge, do deliver over to the warden, his deputy, or chamberlain, the key of his 
chamber, and all the warden's furniture therein. 


xii. That the warden, or his deputy, may turn any prisoner out of his chamber 
to the common side, that shall refuse or neglect to pay his or her chamber-rent 
for the space of three months ; and that the warden, or his deputy, shall, in such 
case, cause an inventory to be made of the prisoner's goods and effects (if any), 
signed by two witnesses, and shall immediately deliver such goods and effects 
to such prisoner; but the warden may still detain the person of such prisoner, 
though discharged by the plaintiff, or in any other manner, until his arrears of 
chamber-rent shall be fully satisfied and paid. 

xm. That no prisoner, or other person, shall keep any public room within the 
said prison for selling any victuals, wine, brandy, punch, beer, ale, or other liquor, 
without leave of the warden, or his deputy; and if any prisoner, or prisoners, 
shall offend in the premises, it shall be lawful for the warden, or his deputy, to 
turn him, her, or them, out of their room or rooms to the common side ; and the 
warden and his deputy are hereby required to take care that good order be kept 
in such public room or rooms, as shall be allowed by either of them to be used 
as aforesaid. 

xiv. That the warden do take effectual care that every prisoner committed to 
his custody be conveyed to the prison of the Fleet, without being carried to any 
public victualling or drinking-house, or the private house of any tipstaff, officer, 
or minister of the Fleet, or of any tenant or relation of his, without the voluntary 
consent of the person or persons so in custody ; and that no garnish, or money, 
shall be extorted by any prisoner or prisoners from any person committed, for his 
coming into the said prison. 

xv. That the warden do cause a table of the gifts and bequests made for the 
benefit of the prisoners of the Fleet, expressing the particular purposes for which 
the same are given, to be fairly writ in a plain and legible hand, to be hung up 
in the hall of the said prison ; and that the warden take care that no prisoner, 
or prisoners, be deprived or defrauded of his, her, or their shares, dues, or 
dividends, of the charities so given ; and that no cellarman, turnkey, or other 
officer, or servant of the warden, shall have any share or part in any charity given 
to the prisoners, or bear any office in the said prison which may entitle him to any 
power in receipt or disposition of such charity. 

xvi. That every prisoner who shall make oath before one of the judges of the 
court from whence the process issued upon which he or she shall be taken, or 
charged, or before a commissioner empowered by such court, that he or she is not 


worth five pounds, and cannot subsist without the charities belonging to the 
prisoners of the Fleet, shall immediately be admitted to all shares, dividends, and 
profits arising from such charities. 

xvn. That two rooms marked 9 and 10 up the chapel stairs, shall be kept as an 
infirmary for the use of the prisoners on the common side, who shall fall sick 
of such diseases as shall require their being removed, to prevent infection, or for 
necessary care and relief; and that no prisoner shall be obliged to lie in the same 
bed with a diseased person. 

xvni. That the warden shall keep the prison-house and windows in good and 
necessary repair, and keep the drains, bog-houses, and dunghill, as clean and free 
from stench and noisomeness as possible. 

xix. That when any prisoner dies within the said prison, the said warden shall 
forthwith give notice of such death to the coroner, that the said coroner may 
enquire, according to law, how such prisoner came by his death ; and that the said 
warden shall detain the body no longer than till the coroner's inquest have made 
their inquisition, which shall be done with all convenient speed, and that imme- 
diately afterwards the dead body shall be delivered to the prisoner's friends or 
relations, if they desire it, without fee or reward. 

xx. That the warden do not sue, or procure to be sued out any writ of habeas 
corpus to remove any prisoner from the prison of the Fleet to the prison of the 
King's Bench. 

xxi. That the warden shall keep a book, in which all commitments shall be 
fairly entered in the words of such commitment within fourteen days after any 
prisoner shall be committed. 

xxn. That the warden shall keep another book, containing the names of every 
prisoner actually brought into the Fleet, and taken into the house, with the name 
of the party at whose suit he shall be committed, and the time when the prisoner 
was brought to the Fleet, and received into the prison, specifying withal the court 
or judge by whose authority he shall be committed. 

xxni. That every tipstaff, to whom any prisoner shall be delivered in custody 
at a judge's chamber, shall keep a book, containing the name of such prisoner, 
the time when he was taken into custody, to be signed by such judge's clerk ; and 
such judge's clerk shall keep another book, in which the like entry shall be made, 
signed by the tipstaff. 


xxiv. That the warden shall keep a book, in which memorandums shall be 
entered of all declarations delivered to the turnkey or porter, against any prisoner 
in the Fleet Prison, containing the names of the parties, the cause of action, and 
the time when such declaration shall be delivered. 

xxv. That the warden shall keep a book, in which all discharges of prisoners 
shall be fairly entered, which entry shall specify how such discharge was made, 
whether by the plaintiff, by suptrsedcas, or otherwise, and such entry shall be made 
within five days after every discharge. 

xxvi. That the warden shall keep a book, in which every writ of habeas corpus, 
upon which the prisoner shall not be committed or the custody altered, with the 
return of every such writ of habeas corpus, shall be fairly entered. 

xxvn. That all the books before-mentioned, except the tipstaffs book, shall be 
kept in the public office of the clerk of the papers of the Fleet ; and that all 
persons shall have liberty to resort to them, and to take copies, as there shall be 

xxvin. That no clerk, officer, or servant whatsoever, belonging to any judge of 
this court, shall directly or indirectly demand, receive, or take any gratuity, fee, 
or reward, for, or by reason of any petition, complaint, or application, that shall 
be made by any prisoner or prisoners of the said prison, pursuant to, or founded 
upon any of the rules and orders herein before-mentioned, or concerning any 
misgovernment in the Fleet. 

xxix. Lastly, that the said warden and his officers do treat the several prisoners 
in his custody with all tenderness and humanity, and that such prisoners do 
behave themselves towards the warden with that submission and regard which the 
law requires. 







Termino Hillar. 21 Jacobi regis, 1625, a comic" 1 having issued 
from his maj'* to enquire into fees, &c. taken from the yzth of 

Q. Eli? 

Inter alia, 

Fees due and belonging to the warden of the Fleet, and his under 
officers, as appeareth by a commission, under the great seal of 
England, from the late Queen Eliz a in the $ rd year of her reign, 
and confirmed in the 37'* year of Eli^ what every in their 
several degree ought to pay. 


An arch bishop, 
A duke, 
A dutchess, 

A marquess, 
A marquessess, 
An earl, 
A countess, 
A vice countess, 

' are to pay for their comitm| 
fee to the warden of the 
Fleet, and his officers, hav- 
ing the first weeks' dyett . 
also they are to pay for their 
ordinary comons weekly, 
with wine .... 
are to pay for their comitm' 
fee to the warden of the 
Fleet, and his officers, hav- 
ing the first week's dyett . 
also they are to pay for their 
ordinary comons weekly, 

. with wine .... 

21 IO O 

3 6 8 

ii ii 


A lord spiritual or^teni- 
poral, a lady the wife ^ 
of a baron or a lord, 

A knight, a lady tlie 
wife of a knight, a d" 
of divinity, a d r of 
law, and others of 
like callings, 

An esq'agent*agentlew. 
that shall sit at the 
parlour comons, or any 
person or persons, un- 
der that degree, that 
shall be at the same 
ordinary comons of 
the parlour, 

A yeoman, or any other 
that shall be at the 
hall comons, man or 

are to pay for their comitm| 
fee to the warden of the 
Fleet, and his officers, hav- 
ing the first week's dyett 
also they are to pay for their 
ordinary comons weekly, 
with wine .... 
are to pay for their comitm' 
fee to the warden of the 
Fleet, and his officers, hav- 
ing the first week's dyett 
also they are to pay for their 
. ordinary comons weekly 
are to pay for their comitm' 
fee to the warden of the 
Fleet, and his officers, hav- 
ing the first week's dyett 
and lodging 

also they are to pay for their 
ordinary weekly comons, 
with wine .... 
are to pay for their comitm! 
fee to the warden and his 
officers, having the first 
week's dyett 

also they are to pay for their 
ordinary weekly comons, 
with wine . 


to 5 10 

I 10 O 

o 18 6 

6 8 


i 14 4 


* * 

A poor man in the wards \ . 

is to pay for his fee, having 
that hath a part at the \ 

no dyett . . . .074 
box, } 

Also there is due to the warden of the Fleet zod. per 
diem for the whole day, and lod. for the half day, 
for every man that the warden may lawfully license 
to go abroad. 

Moreover, the warden of the Fleet hath return of 
writs, as the sheriffs and bayliffs of libertys have, 
for which he hath for allowance and return of every 
warr| or attaching . . . . . . .024 

Also for every habeas corpus cum causa there are fees 
for returning the causes, viz. 

For allowance of the writt . . . . .024 

For returning the first cause . . . . .024 
and after every execution . . . . .020 

To the warden's clerk for every acc" . . .010 

And to the warden's servant to bring the prisoner 

safe to the barr . . . . .050 

At Whitehall, the 9'* Jan. 1629. 



L d Keeper, L d Marshall, Earl of Holland, 

L d Cha^ L d Steward, L d Visc| Dorchester, 

L d Presid| Earl of Dorsett, Mr. Vice Chamberlane, 

L d Privy Seal, Earl of Carlisle, Mr. Secretary Cooke. 


It is this day tho ht fitt and ordered (inter alia), that the jurors, 
and such others by whom the truth may be best discovered, shall 
present their full knowledge of perticuler exactions and extortions 
comitted by the officers, attorneys, clerks, and ministers of and 
belonging to the Courts of Chancery and Comon Pleas, and 
perticulerly by whom, how much, of whom, when, and wherefore, 
any new or unwarrantable fees or rewards have been exacted 
or received, and that speedy return be made thereof, for his 
maj'y' 8 most effectual and important service upon the comission 
for enquiry after exacted fees and inovated offices. 

Ext P- JO. BIBLE Y, 

Ckcn. Diet Comission. 

" Altho' the warden for severall kings' and queens' reigns since 
discontinued keeping any table in the prison, and the prisoners 
provided for themselves, yet the fee of 3/. 6s. 8d. as a comitm' fee 
was continued to be paid to all the wardens, and is continued to 
be paid to this day for all prisoners comitted by the councell, 
secretarys of state, High Court of Chancery, and Court of 
Excheq' and the same fee is paid to the black rodd, and all 
serj'. s at armes : but in the last year of King James the Second, 
the judges of the Comon Pleas, taking notice of a clause in an 
act made for the discharge of poor prisoners, allowing prisoners 
to send out of the prison for their necessary food, who before 
had been forc't to take it at the celler of the prison at un- 
reasonable rates, applied that clause to the lessening of the 
warden's fee ; for that, by the establishm! of the 3'? of Eliz? the 
week's comons was part of the fee ; and reduced the fee on the 
master's side to 2/. 4$. ^d. and i/. js. $d. on the comon side, 


w c . h hath ever since been paid for every comitm' or render in 
discharge of bayle where the prisoner or his bayle have been 
able ; and the fees to y? judges, their clerks, and the tipstaffs, are 
likewise distintly paid for every render, as if the prison" were 
bro! upp by severall habeas corpuses to discharge their severall 
bayles, as they formerly used to do : but now the attorneys have 
found out how to save so many habeas corpuses ; and Mr. Ford 
and Mr. Stone, who acted long before Mr. Grindall's time, have 
made affid'? hereof; and there is another affid* that Mr. Dixon, 
who was clerk of the papers of the Fleet for above eighteen 
years, gave the present warden, at the time of his comeing into 
this office, an account of these fees due and paid in all his time : 
Mr. Brampton, Judge Tracy's clerk, Mr. Whiten, the L? Cheife 
Justice King's clerk, Mr. Mason, the L? Parker's clerk, Mr. 
Watts, the clerk of the papers of the King's Bench, give the 
like account, and that such fees were paid before the prisoners 
turned over ; and the now warden is ready to make oath, that, 
between twenty and thirty years since, when he was a practising 
attorney in the city of London, he paid the like fees for tenn 
renders at a time, and well remembers in w' clyents' cases such 
fees were paid." 

Mr. Nixon relates, that when they took down the old houses 
in the market in the year 1 793, in order to build the present wall, 
at the depth of about twenty feet from the surface, they found a 
stone door-way standing complete, which Sir William Chambers 
(the king's surveyor general) and Mr. N. imagined to have been 
an entrance into the prison, as it communicated therewith by 
means of a flight of stone steps. They also thought, that at 
the time this table of fees existed, it was probable that such 


prisoners as were committed to the Fleet by the Star Chamber 
and other arbitrary authorities, were put into a covered boat, and 
conveyed down the Thames, and thence up the river Hoi born 
(which was then navigable), and put into the prison by this door : 
the ancient foundation of the old houses went considerably below 
it, the oak planking whereof (although perhaps it had lain there 
five hundred years) was as perfect and sound as if just put down, 
and actually forms a part of the planking of the foundation of 
the present wall. 

The Fleet Prison, it is believed, after the fire of London in 
1666, was removed to that site of ground upon which the alms- 
houses through Vauxhall turnpike, on the Wandsworth road, now 
stand, until the old prison was rebuilt, Sir Jeremy Whichcott, 
then warden, having his family seat there, which he converted 
into a prison ; for which patriotic act, and rebuilding the old one 
at his own expence, he and his heirs were wardens as long as 
they lived. The office of warden of the Fleet was formerly of 
such consequence, that a brother of one of the Edwards is said 
to have been in the list of wardens. 






THE instinct which protects our helpless offspring, and 
which is denominated parental affection, is bestowed 
upon all animated nature : but HUMANITY, the desire of 
assisting our fellow-creatures, of relieving their distresses, and 
promoting their happiness, belongs exclusively to the human race. 
In the infancy of society, individual benevolence may be adequate 
to the relief of individual distress ; but when millions are united 
in one community, it is then that individual efforts are incapable, 
not only of affording adequate relief to the unfortunate, but even 
of distinguishing and selecting the proper objects of benevolence. 
But when the exertions of many individuals are directed by one 
spirit, to one object, they acquire a momentum of power, which 
never can be attained by an unconnected individual : having one 
single point in view, to which they devote all their efforts, they 
act with an accumulating degree of zeal, perseverance, and 
emulation, till each individual acquires the same interest in the 
happiness of others, that he possesses in his own ; and thus the 
best and the purest species of public spirit is generated and 
preserved in a great country. 

The impulse of this principle is one of the most honourable 
and characteristic traits which distinguishes the British nation ; 
a nation affording examples of a greater variety of noble and 


useful establishments, in their nature purely disinterested, than 
any nation in Europe. Indeed it appears scarcely credible, that 
there should ever have existed a period, when hospitals for the 
preservation of exposed and deserted infants, had been opened at 
Paris, Madrid, Lisbon, Rome, Venice, and Amsterdam, and no 
charity of that kind existing in England. In the reign of 
Queen Anne a scheme of this nature had been projected, but 
had not succeeded. 

In 1713, Mr. Addison, in one of his periodical essays (No. 105 
of The Guardian), directed the public attention again to the 
subject. But it was near ten years after, that Mr. Thomas 
Coram, master of a trading vessel to the American colonies, 
undertook, and, after a labour of seventeen years, succeeded in 
the establishment of the Foundling Hospital. 

On the 1 7th day of October, 1739, the king granted his charter 
to the governors and guardians of the Foundling Hospital, 
constituting them a corporate body, authorizing the purchase of 
real estates not exceeding 4OOO/. a year, and appointing courts 
(at which the presence of thirteen governors at least should be 
required) for the election of committees, a president, and other 
officers, and for the general acts of the corporation. 

It may be necessary to shew how far the Foundling Hospital 
differs from all foreign charities for foundlings ; and to explain 
why a limited establishment of this kind is proper in England, 
although the system of general reception is rendered unnecessary, 
by the institution of our poor laws. The existence of such a 
code, and the establishment of a permanent and certain provision 
for the aged and the helpless, not of occasional bounty, but of 
uncontrovertible right, and the anxious care which has watched, 


though not with equal success, over every abuse or neglect in the 
execution of them, may be placed in competition with the greatest 
of our national achievements. To those, however, who have 
paid much attention to the execution of these laws, it must have 
occurred, that there are some cases in which, from the necessary 
imperfection of all human establishments, the remedy is rendered 
very inadequate : such, among others, is the instance of those 
unhappy females, who, by broken faith, by unprincipled seduction, 
or by some unfortunate circumstance, are placed in a situation, 
where indigence and excess of bodily pain are aggravated by the 
prospect of hopeless contumely and irretrievable disgrace ; and 
who have sometimes been driven to a crime, which no mother 
could ever have imagined, who was not first reduced to the 
utmost extreme of agony and despair. 

These are the objects to which the benefits of this charity are 
peculiarly directed. In such a city as London, there always will 
be some instances, in which the existence of the child, and the 
future welfare and good conduct of the mother, can only be 
secured by such an establishment as that of the Foundling 
Hospital ; and it may be questioned, in many instances, whether 
even the preservation of the helpless and unoffending infant is so 
meritorious and beneficial an act of charity, as the rescuing its 
wretched mother from a course of infamy and prostitution, and 
restoring her to character and the means of honest industry. 

The selection of such cases, with a patient investigation of 
circumstances, is one of the most important duties of the acting 
guardians of this charity. In one respect, this Hospital differs 
from those in other countries, where the law has not appointed 
any peculiar provision for the poor. Theirs are necessarily open 


and universal : this, except during a short period, when the 
system was totally and very improperly changed, extended only 
to those cases where the poor laws do not afford competent 

The inconvenience to be apprehended from such an asylum 
is, the encouragement that may be given in some instances to 
licentious habits of life, by the ease of providing for the con- 
sequences of it. But no such ill effects could ever ensue, if the 
sufferings of these penitent and unhappy women were fully 
known to those who might otherwise have been inclined to follow 
their example. And it is deserving of observation, that no 
instance has come to the knowledge of the committee, of any 
woman so relieved, who has not been thereby saved from (what 
she would in all probability have been involved in) a course of 
vice and prostitution. The detail of their wretched and deserted 
situation, sometimes too well confirmed by the almost starving 
condition in which some of the infants are brought into the 
Hospital, is one (I might say the only) painful circumstance to 
those who attend as the acting administrators of the charity ; a 
detail which, if it could be given to the world without injury to 
the unhappy subjects of it, would serve to deter from vice those 
who might otherwise become the victims of seduction. 

The first general court of the new corporation was held at 
Somerset- House, on the 2Oth of November, 1739; the chairman 
being the Duke of Bedford, who, for a period of above thirty 
years, continued to act as President of the Hospital, until his 
death in 1771. 

Soon after the governors applied for and obtained an act of 
Parliament, confirming their charter, with the addition of some 


further powers, and the exemption of the Hospital from parochial 
jurisdiction and interference. 

The securing of an healthy and convenient site for the 
Hospital, was a subject to which the governors had paid an 
early attention. In October 1740, the committee had been 
authorized to purchase of the Earl of Salisbury the two fields 
on the northern side of Ormond-street, the situation appearing 
to be extremely eligible for the charity. His lordship declined 
treating, unless all his land there, extending to Gray's Inn-lane, 
was included in the purchase ; and named as a price for the 
whole, what his agent stated to have been already offered, the 
sum of 7ooo/. Difficulties however arising, on the part of the 
governors, with respect to the amount of the sum, the earl very 
liberally obviated them, by a donation of 5OO/. towards the 
purchase, reducing it thereby to 6^ooL The general court im- 
mediately accepted the offer, and gave orders for a completion 
of the contract. 

The land purchased of Lord Salisbury appeared so desirable 
a situation for the Hospital, and benefactions for the intended 
building flowed in with so liberal a current, that the corporation 
very speedily took into consideration the erection of an Hospital 
on their new estate ; and on the i6th day of September, 1742, 
the foundation stone of the western wing was laid, and the 
building begun, upon a design prepared by Mr. Jacobsen, one 
of the governors and first benefactors to the charity ; the 
estimate of it amounting to 6555/. 17^. id. 

The western wing of the new Hospital was finished, and the 
houses in Hatton-Garden given up, in October 1745. In March 
1 746, a subscription was opened for the building of the chapel ; 

II. F 


and, the next year, the general committee was authorized to 
contract for the immediate erection of it, upon a plan presented 
by Mr. Jacobsen, the estimate of which was 4I95/. 17^. 40!. And 
in 1749, the general committee (in order that the girls might be 
kept separate from the boys) was authorized to proceed to the 
building of the eastern wing; which, together with the treasurer's 
house, appears to have been ready for habitation in 1752. 

The whole of the building (originally calculated to hold four 
hundred children) was intended to be plain and without 
decoration ; but the talents and public spirit of several artists 
benevolently varied the intention, and many ornaments were 
presented by them to the charity. To Mr. Hogarth, who was 
an active governor and an early benefactor, the Hospital is 
indebted for three pictures ; one his March to Finchley, which, 
in the opinion of some judges, stands first in the catalogue of his 
works ; and another, the portrait of the founder, Mr. Coram, an 
excellent and well painted picture. A list and description of 
these donations, taken from the original printed account of the 
Hospital, are inserted in a note.* 

The charity is under very great obligation to the benevolence 

* In the court-room were placed four capital figures, the subjects being parts of the 
sacred history, suitable to the place for which they were designed. 

The first, painted by Mr. Hayman, and taken from the 2d chapter of Exodus, ver. 
8, 9. the words of which are, "The maid went and called the child's mother, and 
" Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child away and nurse it for me, and I will 
"give you wages." 

The ensuing verse is the subject of the next picture, viz. " And the child grew, and 
" she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son, and she called his 
"name Moses." This picture is painted by Mr. Hogarth. 

The third picture is the History of Ishmael, painted by Mr. Highmore. The subject 
taken from the 2ist chapter of Genesis, ver. 17. "And the angel of the Lord called to 


of Mr. Handel, who, upon the building of the chapel, gave the 
Hospital an organ, and the benefit of his oratorio of the Messiah, 
the performance of which he conducted himself. This he repeated 
for several years, with an advantage to the funds of the charity, 
amounting in the whole to upwards of 6jool. ; and at his death, in 
1759, bequeathed his property in the music of that oratorio to the 

In March 1751, Mr. Coram, the benevolent founder of the 
Hospital, died, in the 84th year of his age. In consequence of a 

" Hagar out of heaven, and said to her, What aileth thee, Hagar ? Fear not, for God 
"hath heard the voice of the lad where he is ! " 

The fourth picture was painted by Mr. Willes ; its subject taken from the i8th chapter 
of Luke, ver. 16. "Jesus said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them 
"not ; for of such is the kingdom of God." On each side of these pictures are placed 
smaller pictures, in circular frames, representing the most considerable Hospitals in and 
about London. 

1. The view of the Foundling Hospital, by Mr. Wilson. 

2. The view of the hospital at Hyde Park Corner, called St. George's Hospital, also 
by Mr. Wilson. 

3. The view of Chelsea Hospital, by Mr. Haytley. 

4. The view of Bethlem Hospital, also by Mr. Haytley. 

5. The view of St. Thomas's Hospital, by Mr. Whale. 

6. The view of Greenwich Hospital, by Mr. Whale. 

7. The view of the Blue Coat Hospital, also by Mr. Whale. 

8. The view of Suttorfs Hospital, called the Charter- House, by Mr Gainsborough. 
Over the chimney is placed a very curious bass-relief, carved by Mr. Rysbrack, and 

presented by him, representing children employed in navigation and husbandry ; being 
the employments to which the children of this hospital are destined. 

The other ornaments of the room were also given by several ingenious workmen, who 
had been employed in building the Hospital, and were desirous to contribute to its 

The stucco work was given by Mr. William Wilton ; the marble chimney by Mr. 
Deval ; the table with its frame enriched with carving, by Mr. John Sanderson, and the 
glass by Mr. Hallet. 

In the other rooms of the Hospital are the following pictures : His Most Sacred 


wish expressed in his lifetime, he was interred under the chapel, in 
the midst of that charity which he had founded ; a monument 
more noble and dignified than ever pride or wealth obtained. 
His life had been so totally devoid of self-interest, that he left 
behind him property hardly sufficient to discharge the expences 
of his funeral. 

The increase of the income arising from the chapel, was an 
object of importance in point of revenue ; and in this the charity 
was more early in its success. The general committee, in order 
to ensure a maintenance to a blind boy of the Hospital, had, in 
1758, been induced to give directions for his being regularly in- 
structed in music, at the expence of the charity : a similar order was 
made in 1768, and again in 1771 ; and the seeds of benevolence 
in these, as in most instances, have been returned with tenfold 
produce into the bosom of the charity. The attention of the 
governors to the management of the chapel, and to the instruction 
of the children in sacred music, has, from that time, been attended 
with great emolument to the charity. From the annual sum of 
37/. 4.?. id. the whole receipt from the chapel in 1766, it had in 
1776 increased to 34O/. 15^. $d. ; in 1786, to 88i/. ^s. id.; in 
T 795. to I594/. is. $d. ; and the produce of the chapel in 1806, 
was 28i6/. i is. 6ct. 

Majesty King George the Second, Patron of this Hospital, by Mr. Shakleton, painter to 
his majesty. The Right Honourable the Earl of Dartmouth, one of the vice-presidents 
of the Hospital, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Taylor White, Esq. treasurer of the Hospital, 
in crayons, by Mr. Coates. Mr. Thomas Coram, and The March of the Guards to 
Finchley, by Mr. Hogarth ; Mr. Milner and Mr. Jacobsen, by Mr. Hudson ; Dr. Mead, 
by Mr. Ramsay ; Mr. Emerson, by Mr. Highmore ; Francis Fauquier, Esq. lieutenant 
governor of Virginia, by Mr. Wilson. A large sea-piece, by Mr. Brooking ; and a fine 
landscape, by Mr. Lambert. 


A kitchen has been fitted up at the Foundling Hospital, upon 
the plan, and under the direction, of Count Rumford. It has 
now been in constant and daily use for thirteen years ; and, the 
direction with regard to the quantity of fuel having been strictly 
adhered to, it has been found to answer very completely. The 
saving in coals to the charity has been 25 chaldrons a year. 
Two cooks were employed before, and in very warm service ; 
there is now only one, and (the first instruction properly attended 
to) she finds it an easy duty. The iron work requires occasionally 
some repair ; but not so much as the old kitchen did, or so much 
as would be required by any common kitchen, from whence two 
hundred and fifty persons were to be supplied with their daily 
food. During warm weather, the flues retain the heat so well, 
that half a peck of coals, with cinders, is as much as is now used 
for either the boiler or roaster. In winter it amounts to about 
a peck of coals, of the inferior and smaller sort, that will not burn 
in common fires. 

Music had been a source of very considerable benefit to the 
charity ; and by the benevolence of Mr. Handel, very large sums 
had been added to the funds of the corporation. In July 1774, 
Doctor Burney and Mr. Giardini presented to the general court 
a plan for establishing a public music-school at the Hospital ; a 
plan which promised considerable, though no immediate, ad- 
vantage to the charity ; but the proposal was rejected, * as not 
warranted by the Act of Parliament. 

* This may be a proper subject for reconsideration. The scheme, as then offered, 
seems to have been chiefly exceptionable, because the projectors extended it too far. 
How far, cannot now be precisely stated, as the plan was returned to the projectors, and 


To the plan of re-establishing the finances, and perpetuating 
the funds of the charity, by granting building leases, objections 
had always been made, which, for a series of years, had prevented 
the improvement of the hospital estate. However, in May 1785, 
the governors being alarmed by the circumstance of the expences 
of the Hospital having for some time exceeded the income, a 
committee of enquiry was appointed; and, in March 1786, after 
a lapse of above ten years, the consideration of the improvement 
of their estate was resumed. In March 1787, the general com- 
mittee was empowered to receive proposals, for taking any part 
of the hospital land on building leases. 

In December 1787, it was resolved, that such part of the estate 
as laid south of, and adjoining to, the road leading from the gates 
of the Hospital to Gray's Inn-lane, should be let on building 
leases ; and the general committee was desired to advertise the 
same, and to lay all proposals, which they should receive relating 
thereto, before the next court. This was confirmed in March 
1788; and the ground of the Hospital was then ordered to be 
advertised generally, to be let on building leases, and the most 
speedy and effectual measures to be taken for letting the same. 

The building committee, with the aid of Mr. Cockerell, prepared 
a general and very full report on the subject ; and (in case of the 
success of the measure) stated the probable accession of ground 

no copy kept. A musical school within the Hospital, for the children incapable of any 
other means of livelihood, might, under proper limitations, prove a benefit to the funds of 
the Hospital, and a source of inestimable charity ; by giving comfort and independence 
to any of the hospital children whose sight may fail, and, in some cases, to children 
deprived of sight, the peculiarity of whose distress may entitle them to the protection of 
the charity. 


rents at the annual sum of at least 4OOO/. What has been 
since let, amounts to 30457. I2S. ^d. exclusive of 5 5 2/. i$s. 
under a pepper-corn rent, but which will be receivable in 1808 
and 1809. 

The gradual restoration of the finances of the Hospital, and 
the late increase of benefactions and legacies, have enabled the 
governors to replace stock which they had been compelled to 
sell for the maintenance of the children ; to set about that general 
and thorough repair of the Hospital, which it had long wanted ; 
to liquidate its outstanding debts ; and, at the same time, gradually 
to increase the establishment of its children, with a prospect of 
a further augmentation. In March 1799 (in order to open the 
doors equally and impartially to all proper objects), the general 
court directed, that public notice be given, that there are, at 
present, vacancies for several children, to be admitted into the 
Foundling Hospital ; that the ordinary age of reception (except 
in very particular cases) is within twelve months from the birth ; 
that, in order to the reception of the child, the previous good 
character and the present necessity of the mother, and the de- 
sertion of the father, must be enquired into ; and also, whether 
the reception of the child, together with the secrecy observed 
as to the misfortune of the mother, will be attended with the 
consequence of her being replaced in a course of virtue, and 
in a way of obtaining an honest livelihood ; that where these 
concurrent circumstances can be ascertained on the testimony 
of credible persons, the unfortunate mother is requested to apply 
herself, with her own petition ; and to be assured, that both 
recommendation and patronage will be unnecessary and useless. 
It was at the same time notified, that the general committee 


continued to sit for examination of petitions for admission of 
children, every Wednesday morning, precisely at ten o'clock. 

The reception for children at the Foundling Hospital in 
London, is on the Saturday at noon preceding a public baptism ; 
the circumstances of each case having been investigated and ascer- 
tained during the preceding month, and proper nurses sent up 
by the inspectors in the country for the children to be admitted. 
The age of admittance is, generally, within six weeks from the 
birth ; and, unless in some very few cases of peculiar distress, 
is limited by the rules of the charity to twelve months. 

The children are publicly christened the next day, in the 
Foundling chapel, during the Sunday evening service ; and on 
Monday morning they are conveyed, under the care of their 
nurses, to their respective cottages, in the neighbourhood of the 
inspectors, about twenty or thirty miles from London. Care is 
taken that no nurse shall have more than one wet-nurse child 
at a time ; and in case of the death of a child, the nurse, by 
the regulations of the charity, is not to be entrusted with another 
child ; unless, upon enquiry as to the attention she has paid it, 
the circumstances appear to be very favourable to her. The 
nurse is allowed three shillings a week ; and, if the child is 
living at the end of the first year, she is entitled to a reward 
of ten shillings. The mortality among the children at nurse is 
very small,* compared with that of infants in almost any other 
situation of life. 

* It appears, by reference to the books of the Hospital, that there has been, since the 
end of the year 1770, the number of 1666 children received into the Hospital, of whom 
482 children died under the age of twelve months, being rather more than the proportion 


The principal objects of this charitable institution are, 

1. To prevent the murder or destruction of illegitimate infants 
at their birth, or soon after, by their own mothers ; who are 
often led to these unnatural crimes in the first agonies of despair, 
from the dread of infamy and ruin. 

2. To give those unhappy women who may have been seduced 
and forsaken, an opportunity of retrieving their characters, by 
returning to habits of honest industry and a virtuous course of 
life ; for want of which they are often exposed to contempt within 
the circle of their acquaintance, and have frequently recourse to 
a state of prostitution, or dishonesty, in consequence of being 
excluded from every reputable connection and employment. 

3. To protect and educate a great number of helpless infants, 
who otherwise, if not wilfully destroyed, might perish with hunger 
and disease ; or become a burden and nuisance to society, from 
their decrepitude, their ignorance, and their crimes, instead of 
being, what they generally prove to be, useful subjects, good 
Christians, and faithful servants. Within the walls of the Foundling 
Hospital they grow up healthy, innocent, and strong ; they are 
wholly excluded from the contagion of bad example, and are not 
only instructed during their childhood in the principles of revealed 
religion, but are bred up to habits of useful industry. 

These three important objects have all been accomplished with 
the greatest success. 

of one in four. The present management and care of the children is more successful ; 
the average of those who have died under twelve months in the preceding ten years, 
being only one in six ; and, for the last four or five years, even less than that proportion. 
The number of children admitted since the commencement of this institution is upwards 
of 18,800, to the present time. 


MANNER OF ADMISSION. Women whose infants are proper 
objects of the Foundling Charity, and not above a year old, may 
apply on any Wednesday, before ten o'clock, to the secretary 
at the Hospital, with petitions, which may be prepared by them- 
selves if they can write ; if not, by a friend. No particular form 
is required, and no interest or recommendation is necessary to 
procure for them the benefit of the Hospital. The circumstances 
which every woman will be required to prove, by reference to 
credible persons, are, 

1. That the child is her own, and who is the father; both 
which circumstances must, if required, be attested on the oath 
of the mother herself. 

2. What is become of the father of the infant, to the best of 
her knowledge. 

3. That her general character and conduct, before her offence, 
have been honest and reputable. 

4. That she is not able to provide for her child herself, without 
being reduced to extreme indigence, and without exposure of her 
guilt. And, 

5. That by providing for her infant, and concealing her shame, 
there is a prospect of her returning to a virtuous course of life, 
and preserving her former station in society. 

It may not be improper to add, that the committee are particu- 
larly attentive in their enquiries as to the conduct and character 
of the mother previous and subsequent to her seduction. That 
the circumstance of her having remained only a short time in 
place, or having frequented the company of the idle and profligate 
when out of place, operate very much against her ; and they are, 
with great propriety, extremely indignant at any references to 


persons against whom a well founded suspicion can arise of 
having been partakers of the wages of prostitution. Indeed, 
references to persons who are inclined to speak well from motives 
of commiseration, rather than knowledge, or warranted good 
opinion, injure the cause they are intended to support. 

On the other hand, cases that come recommended by previous 
length of service, good and honest characters, cases of seduction 
by fellow servants, or persons in a similar degree of life, under 
solemn promises of marriage, followed by unprincipled desertion, 
and accompanied with that indescribable conflict of mind which 
a young person necessarily undergoes, who, notwithstanding her 
loss of innocence, retains a virtuous heart who, plunged from 
the elevation of character, to the depth of shame and remorse, 
still feels the anxieties and anguish of maternal affection who 
anticipates even the success of a petition which is to separate the 
child from her bosom, with a pang almost of annihilation such 
cases want no patronage, no other recommendations to interest 
the governors of this charity ; on the contrary, they frequently 
assist such mothers by an allowance from private funds equal to 
the redemption of her clothes if pawned, or enable her to pur- 
chase what she stands in need of. 


When any child is admitted into the Hospital, the mother 
receives a receipt, which entitles her to enquire after the child ; 
and to claim it, if she, or her husband, is in a situation to main- 
tain it. The time for receiving children into the Hospital, is 
generally the first Saturday in every month ; and on the following 


day they are publicly baptized during the evening service. The 
next morning they are sent into the country, about twenty or 
thirty miles from London, to their nurses, who are under the 
observance and controul of inspectors, living in the neighbour- 
hood, and appointed by the general committee. No wet-nurse is 
permitted to have more than one child at a time : she receives 
her weekly allowance from the inspectors, and a gratuity besides, 
if the child under her care is living at the end of a twelvemonth. 
The children, while in the country, are frequently visited by 
persons sent, without notice, by the general committee ; and when 
they are about four years old, they return to the Hospital. 

EDUCATION. They are taught reading, writing, and accounts ; 
they are also instructed in the church catechism, and learn to sing 
the Foundling Hymns and Anthems. The girls, in addition to 
this, are taught knitting and plain work. 

EMPLOYMENT. The girls are chiefly employed in needle-work, 
which the Hospital takes in ; in making their own clothes, and all 
the linen of the Hospital, and in such household work as is calcu- 
lated to make them good servants. 

The boys occasionally work in the garden, keep the court-yard 
and chapel clean, and do such household work as may serve to 
make them useful, and give them habits of industry. 

APPRENTICESHIP. The boys are apprenticed at twelve or 
thirteen, and the girls at fourteen years of age. The former 
are generally placed with London shopkeepers, to whom their 
being able to write and keep accounts, is of considerable im- 

Some are taken as house servants, or employed in husbandry ; 
others are articled to such trades as they are capable of learning, 


and some go to sea. The girls are in general apprenticed to 
persons in town or country, as servants. 


1. No boy, or girl, is apprenticed to any person but a house- 
keeper, of whose character and situation a strict enquiry is pre- 
viously made. 

2. No girl is apprenticed to an unmarried man, nor to any 
married man, without the concurrence of the wife. 

3. In general, the girls are not apprenticed to any person who 
lets lodgings, and who does not keep, at least, one established 
servant in the house. 

4. The children are frequently visited during their apprentice- 
ship, the girls by the matron, and the boys by the schoolmaster. 
The house committee, which sits on a Saturday, at half-past nine 
o'clock, is ready to hear any complaint, and to redress any 
grievance between the apprentices and their respective masters 
or mistresses, and do not consider their duty as guardians fulfilled 
till they are twenty-one years of age. 

It appears from a report of the treasurer's, made in May 1798, 
that out of 252 children then serving their apprenticeships, 

There were found to be doing well 166 

In distant situations of whom there had been no complaint 27 

Apprenticed to their own relations 23 

Of doubtful conduct requiring judicious management 21 

Who had turned out ill, only 15 



It appears also by the report, that the proportion of good 
servants in place, and of industrious apprentices in trade, among 
the children of the Foundling Hospital, is as great as from any 
other class of young persons ; and that there are many respect- 
able persons in London, married and settled in business, who 
have been educated and apprenticed by this charity. 

We cannot leave this subject without expressing the satisfac- 
tion we have felt in pursuing our enquiries into the details of this 
excellent institution, and we add with sincere pleasure our feeble 
testimony to the active and successful benevolence with which its 
concerns are administered. 

< L 




THIS plate represents the Hall of the (BnmlJ ?Lo!njC 
belonging to the Free- Masons of England. It is situated 
in Great Queen-street, and attached to the Free-Masons' 
Tavern. It represents the company on the day of the annual 
dinner, when the female children who are supported by this 
society, move in procession through the Hall. In pursuance of 
a resolution of the Grand Lodge, a committee was appointed, in 
the year 1773, for the purpose of procuring a proper situation to 
erect a new Hall, suitable to the increased respectability of this 
society. The committee having succeeded in this object, during 
the year 1774, and the plan of the new Hall having been pre- 
pared and approved of, in the year 1775 a fund of 5ooo/. was 
raised by a tontine, towards erecting the same. 

On the ist of May 1775, Lord Petre, accompanied by the 
officers of the Grand Lodge of Masons of England, laid the 
foundation-stone of the present building, with the following cere- 
monies : The grand master, preceded by the grand stewards, 
past and present grand officers, in their regalia, and an excellent 
band of martial music, came in procession to the ground, about 
twelve o'clock ; when his lordship, attended by his deputy, 


wardens, secretary, treasurer, and architect, went down into the 
trench, and laid the stone with the usual forms. An anthem was 
then sung by Brother Du Bellamy, and an oration pronounced 
by Brother James Bottomly. The company then returned in 
procession in coaches to Leather-Sellers' Hall, where an elegant 
entertainment was provided. In the month of May 1776, upon 
Holy Thursday, the new Hall was dedicated with considerable 
solemnity, a great number of strangers being present, particularly 
ladies, who were treated with the utmost politeness and attention. 
The celebrated and at that time the popular Dr. Dodd preached 
the sermon upon this occasion. 

The society of Free and Accepted Masons lays claim to con- 
siderable antiquity : the origin of their association was probably 
nothing more than a meeting of persons in the same profession, 
led by a similarity of pursuits and habits to associate together, 
for the common and usual purposes of society. The distinctions 
of master, prentices, and fellow-craft, naturally occurred, without 
connecting any thing more with the names than they obviously 
import ; and, in the earlier periods, it is impossible to suppose a 
society so perfectly modelled, and the degrees of subordination so 
perfectly arranged, as some sticklers for the antiquity of Free- 
Masonry contend. 

With regard to the great secrets to which these societies pre- 
tend, they are supposed to relate either to some extraordinary 
knowledge in masonry or building, to the particular objects of the 
institution itself, or the words, signs, or means by which Free- 
Masons distinguish each other from those who are not initiated. 
If we are of the elect, it must be obvious, that we ought not to 
divulge a secret which has been preserved with so much fidelity 


from age to age ; and if we are not of this society (a society 
distinguished for character as well as number in every country 
of Europe, and consisting chiefly of princes and persons of the 
greatest merit and consideration), it must be equally obvious, that 
we cannot impart to our readers a knowledge that we do not 
possess. But in either case, we may be allowed to observe, that 
architecture appears to be the least likely of all the arts or pro- 
fessions, to involve, either in its elements or history, any thing 
like mystery. According to the Mosaic account, Cain built a city 
(about 3875 years before the Christian sera), and called it after 
his son Enoch DEDICATE or CONSECRATE ; that JABAL, the son of 
Lamech, was the first who erected tents, or movable houses. It 
must be very clear, that architecture had made considerable pro- 
gress when Noah constructed the ark, of strength to resist the 
waters raging over the face of the whole earth. Nineveh and 
other cities were built by Ashur. The city and tower of Babel, 
built by the sons of Noah, when they were ordered to disperse, 
as they were built of brick and cemented with slime, is evidence 
of considerable improvement in this art, whether we deny or 
admit with Herodotus and Strabo, that this was the Babylon 
described by them. It is certainly a fanciful conceit, to attribute 
the rise of the Masonic Faculty, and their universal practice of 
conversing without speaking, and of knowing each other by signs 
and tokens, to the dispersion which took place about fifty- 
three years after the tower of Babel was begun. We know with 
more certainty, that the practice of masonry, and the knowledge 
of architecture, were carried to Egypt, where it flourished at least 
two thousand years before the Christian sera. The cities of 
Memphis, Heliopolis, and Thebes, the colossal statue of SPHINX, 

II. G 


and those huge pyramids, at the remains of which modern travel- 
lers still gaze with wonder and astonishment, bear ample testi- 
mony of the skill of the Egyptians in architecture, although their 
knowledge seems to have been confined to a few of its most 
simple principles, and they appear to have been altogether ignor- 
ant of the use of the arch. Indeed, those enormous blocks of 
granite which composed the walls of their temples, baffle the 
powers even of modern mechanism, although employed with the 
utmost skill, and with all the assistance afforded by modern 

In India too we have the remains of architecture (of a different 
nature), which rival even the powers and skill of the Egyptians : 
indeed, the knowledge and practice of this art in India, is, by 
some learned men, supposed to have been anterior to its cultiva- 
tion in Egypt. 

The walls of Nineveh and Babylon, built by the Assyrians, 
are reckoned among the seven wonders of the world ; and as the 
bricks with which they were built, were cemented with bitumen 
and straw or reeds, it is presumed they were at this period 
ignorant of the art of converting stones into lime. 

The famous temple of Dagon at Gaza, supported by only two 
slender columns, not too large for the grasp of Samson, affords 
no slight proof of the excellence of the Phoenicians, and their 
progress in the art of building. This city was afterwards re- 
paired by Hiram, King of Tyre, and joined to the temple of 
Jupiter, that stood upon an island : he likewise beautified the city 
by two noble temples, one dedicated to Hercules, the other to 

At this period the artists of Tyre and Sidon were of great 


celebrity ; and the Jews, from their vicinity and intercourse, had 
the opportunity of learning those arts which were so highly 
cultivated by their neighbours. 

Upon the accession of Solomon to the throne of David, he lost 
no time in carrying into execution the design of his father, to 
build a magnificent house for the ark of God ; and applied to 
Hiram, his friend and ally, for assistance. In addition to other 
aids, Hiram sent him a man of his own name, a Tyrian, of 
Israelitish descent, who was called HIRAM ABBIF ; a name that 
is seldom mentioned by Masons without the highest respect and 

To carry on this stupendous work with greater ease and speed, 
Solomon caused all the craftsmen to be numbered, as well natives 
as foreigners, and classed as follows : 

1. HARODIM Princes and rulers 300 

2. MENATZCHIM Overseers and comforters of the 

people in working 3300 

3. GHIBLIM Stone-squarers, polishers, and sculptors ; 

and ISHCHOTZEB men of hewing ; and BENAI 

setters, layers, or builders 80000 

4. The levy out of Israel appointed to work in Lebanon 

one month in three, 10,000 every month, under 

the direction of ADONIRAM 30000 

Besides the ISH SABBAL, or men of burthen, the remains 

of the Canaanites, amounting to 70000 


From Egypt, architecture travelled into Greece, where the arts, 
fostered by a genial climate and an ingenious people, soon began 


to flourish, and at length arrived at a maturity and perfection 
which have rarely been equalled, and never excelled, by- 
succeeding nations. In the arts of design the Grecians had no 
rivals ; and for a period of at least three centuries (from the time 
of Solon to the death of Alexander), they maintained a superiority 
of excellence so great, that the most perfect models of sculpture 
which exist at this time, are the production of artists who 
flourished during that period. 

The arch appears to have been the invention of the Greeks ; 
and we are certainly indebted to them for the Doric, Ionic, and 
Corinthian orders. 

In Greece, no slave was permitted by law to learn the seven 
sciences of the freedom, viz. i. Grammar 2. Rhetoric 3. Logic 
4. Arithmetic 5. Geometry 6. Music 7. Astronomy. 

Now as Geometry is the foundation of Masonry, it has been 
ingeniously contended by the advocates for the antiquity of 
Masonic Societies, that Free -Masons, even in Greece, were 
distinguished by that appellation, as well as by their lodges ; 
and that these learned people (properly considering that the 
rules of the beautiful proportions in architecture, were taken from 
the proportions of the human body), wisely determined, that their 
fine painters and statuaries should be considered as architects ; 
and they were accordingly accepted as brothers. It is from this 
period, therefore, they date the strict union between the Free and 
Accepted Masons, which has since subsisted in all regular lodges. 

The Sicilians, descended from the Greeks, inherited from them 
a knowledge of architecture, and followed their instructions. 
The name of Archimedes, who defended Syracuse against the 
Romans, is held by Masons in little less respect than that of 


Euclid. From Sicily we pass to Italy, where the Tuscans had 
many monuments of taste in architecture : they had learned from 
the Greeks the three orders ; to these they added their own, or 
the Tuscan order, which it does not appear the Greeks had ever 
been acquainted with. Turrenus, the last king of the Tuscans, 
bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, who employed their 
more skilful neighbours in building the Capitol, and likewise the 
Cloaca Maxima, the remains of which are highly curious and 
extraordinary. The Tuscans are said to have been the inventors 
of the method of building with small stones and mortar. It does 
not appear that the Romans made any great progress in building, 
or in the style of their architecture, till about the year of Rome 
559, when Scipio Asiaticus deprived the king of Syria of all his 
dominions west of mount Taurus. 

It was at this period the Romans became acquainted with the 
beauties of Grecian architecture, and beheld with astonishment 
and pleasure the productions of taste, grandeur, and simplicity. 
But if the Romans seem to have wasted five or six centuries in 
a perpetual succession of wars, they afterwards cultivated archi- 
tecture with a zeal and attachment, that promised, and indeed 
obtained, a high degree of excellence. In the number, variety, 
and magnificence of their public and private buildings, they 
successfully compete with their Grecian masters : but in the 
most flourishing periods of Roman greatness, from the days of 
Augustus to the reign of Constantine, we shall in vain look for 
the simplicity of design, and purity of taste, which have rendered 
the Grecian architecture an object of continued admiration with 
succeeding ages. To the three orders which they derived from 
Greece, and the Tuscan, which they learned from their neigh- 


bours, the Romans added the Composite, or Roman order. The 
Egyptians, in their vast structures, considered vastness of design, 
and immensity of parts, more than ornament or utility ; and even 
the Grecians, with all their taste and elegance, seem never to 
have forgotten, that they were building for posterity. It is to 
the circumstance of their employing large and weighty stones in 
the construction of their buildings, jointed with the greatest 
accuracy, and fitted together without cement, that the remains of 
them are at this day in a state of so much perfection. But 
previous to the extinction of the Roman Empire, purity of taste 
in all the arts of design had rapidly declined, and the imposing 
magnificence of a grand exterior had long been sacrificed to 
costly ornaments and interior decoration. 

The northern nations of Europe, the Goths, Vandals, &c. had 
become numerous and powerful, as the Roman power declined ; 
and at length bursting forth like a torrent, invaded and over-ran 
the fairest provinces of the empire, and at last Italy itself; 
destroying the finest monuments of arts and architecture, and 
involving the whole empire of the West in the most gross and 
profound ignorance. The Mahometans, at no distant period, 
completed the destruction of the Eastern empire. 

The Goths soon became converts to Christianity, and having 
no principles or rules of architecture, either converted the Roman 
basilicas into churches, or formed new ones after the models of 
such as had been erected in the latter ages of the Roman empire. 
Very little alteration therefore took place during their govern- 
ment ; and it requires but little to satisfy the learned and 
judicious, that the term GOTHIC is very improperly applied to a 
style of building, which originated at a period long subsequent 


to the existence of the Goths as a nation. The fact really is, 
that the style of building which prevailed in Italy during their 
power, was the debased Roman. The restorers of the Grecian 
style in Italy, and the followers of Palladio and Inigo Jones, with 
a view to degrade the beautiful edifices which were erected 
between the early part of the twelfth, and the end of the fifteenth 
century, stigmatized them all with the epithet of Gothic. The 
first certain accounts we have of Britain, is from Caesar's Com- 
mentaries. He landed in this island about fifty years before the 
birth of Christ. We hear little more of the Romans till the year 
77, when Julius Agricola conquered as far as the isthmus between 
the friths of Clyde and Forth, which he fortified with a wall of 
earth against the Picts. A succession of emperors and their 
lieutenants visited the island, of whom little is necessary to be 
said, so far as the history of Masonry is concerned, till the time 
of Carausius, who was employed by the joint Emperors Dioclesian 
and Maximilian against the Saxon pirates. About this period, 
A.D. 287, Albanus is said to have formed the first grand lodge 
in Great Britain.* 

The Romans continued to interfere in the affairs of Britain 
during a period of about 486 years, if we reckon from the landing 
of Caesar to the departure of the last legion under Gallio, A.D. 
430. The northern nations hearing that the Romans were never 
to return, invaded the south, and ravaged it the more easily, as 
the southern nations were divided under several kings, until they 

* The old constitutions affirm, and the old English Masons as firmly believe it, that 
Carausius employed St. Alban to " environ the city of Verulam with a stone wall, and to 
"build him a fine palace ; for which that British king made St. Alban the steward of his 
" household, and chief ruler of the realm." 


were united under Vortigern, who, with the consent of his nobles, 
invited the Saxons of Lower Germany to assist them ; which 
they did, sending more than 2000 troops under Prince Hengist ; 
and having succeeded in driving the Scots and Picts beyond the 
H umber, determined to settle themselves in the country of their 
new ally ; which, after many battles with the natives, they ac- 
complished, and founded the Heptarchy. 

The first Saxon churches were built about the latter end of 
the fifth, and beginning of the sixth century ; among the principal 
were, the cathedrals of Canterbury and Rochester, St. Paul's 
London, and St. Peter's Westminster. They appear to have 
been constructed after models of Roman temples ; the style itself 
was called Roman, and the term Gothic, as already observed, 
was not known till many centuries afterwards. The principal 
entrance was at the west end, into the nave ; on each side was 
an aisle ; at the other extremity of the nave was a cross, ex- 
tending north and south ; towards the east was situated the choir : 
over the center of the cross was usually a tower, and another 
was generally erected to contain the bells. This style is easily 
recognized by its semicircular arches and massy pillars, which 
were either polygonal, square, or circular, and by the three tiers 
or stories, which divided the side aisles. Mr. Britton, in his 
Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, has classed the 
several styles in the following order: i. Anglo-Saxon 2. Anglo- 
Norman 3. English 4. Decorated English 5. Highly deco- 
rated florid English.* 

* i. A.-S. This will embrace all buildings that were erected between the times of 
the conversion of the Saxons and the Norman conquest. 

2. A.-N. by which is meant that style which prevailed from 1066 to 1189, including 


From the beginning of Henry VIII. our intercourse with the 
Italians begat a mixed and debased species of architecture, which 
continued to disfigure the buildings erected during this and the 
succeeding reigns of Edward VI. Mary I. and Elizabeth : the 
latter hearing that Free- Masons had certain secrets which could 
not be revealed to her, and being jealous of all secret assemblies, 
she sent an armed force to break up their annual grand lodge at 
York, on St. John's day, 27th December, 1561. 

But the ancient architecture was soon after restored in this 
country by Inigo Jones, who was born A.D. 1572. His principal 
works are the Banqueting-room Whitehall, Greenwich, Covent- 
Garden, Bloomsbury - House (late the Duke of Bedford's), 
Gunnesbury-House, Wilton-House, &c. 

the reigns of William I. and II. Henry I. Stephen, and Henry II. During this period 
the arch, from being circular, was slightly pointed, and the heavy pillars were formed 
into pilastered clusters, which gradually assumed a more elegant and ornamental 

3. English, from 1189 to 1272, ^including the reigns of Richard I. John, and 
Henry III. At this time pointed and circular arches were frequently mixed in the same 
building, till the taste for pointed arches becoming more general, uniformity, proportion, 
and elegance began to prevail ; a higher degree of decoration was introduced, and the 
buttresses formed in stages, diminishing towards the top, and ornamented with pinnacles. 

4. D. E. from 1272 to 1461, including the reigns of Edward I. II. and III. Richard II. 
Henry IV. V. and VI. During this period the east and west windows were considerably 
enlarged, and carried up almost the whole height of the vaulting and nearly the breadth 
of the nave, and were highly ornamented with painted glass. The pillars became more 
tall and slender, the columns which formed the cluster were of different diameters, and 
the capitals more complicated. The vaulting was richly studded with knots of foliage. 
The canopies were purfled, and terminated with a rich knot of flowers. The flying 
buttresses were formed on segments of circles, uniting at the same time lightness and 

5. H. d.f. E. from 1461 to 1509, including the reigns of Edward IV. V. Richard HI. 
and Henry VII. 


To Inigo Jones succeeded Sir Christopher Wren, who was 
principal architect for rebuilding the city of London, and the 
parochial churches enacted by Parliament to be built in lieu of 
those destroyed at the great fire. But the work that will per- 
petuate his name as an architect, is St. Paul's Cathedral, a work 
inferior only in size to St. Peter's at Rome. "This noble 
"structure, began in the year 1675, was finished A.D. 1710, by 
"one architect, and under one Bishop of London (Dr. Henry 
"Compton): whereas St. Peter's was 145 years in building, 
"carried on by twelve architects, successively assisted by the 
"policy and interest of the Papal See, the ready acquisition of 
" marble, and attended by the best artists of the world in 
"sculpture, statuary, painting, and mosaic work, during the reign 
"of nineteen popes." 

In following the progress of architecture from the rude designs 
of the first cottage, through the several seras of the massy 
Egyptian, the splendid Jewish, the elegant Grecian, the more 
varied Roman, the heavy Saxon, the debased Italian, the orna- 
mented English, the revival of the ancient styles, up to the 
present age of motley buildings, we have in fact traced the 
progress of Masonic Societies, which have fluctuated between 
the extremes of princely patronage and political persecution, as 
the caprice, ignorance, or suspicions of those who possessed the 
power, led them either to encourage or depreciate establishments 
of this nature. Wicked and designing men there are in all 
numerous societies ; but, notwithstanding the reflections which 
have been thrown out upon Free-Masons, and the object of 
their institutions (as supposed to be connected with the projects 
of certain Illuminatt], so far as we are able to judge of human 


societies by the common means of human observation, the Free- 
Masons appear rather to merit the encouragement and protection 
of all good governments, than to be branded as objects of 
suspicion. We shall add, for the entertainment, and possibly 
for the information, of some of our readers, certayne questyons, 
wyth awnsweres to the same, concernynge the mystery of Mafonrye ; 
wrytenne by the hande of Kynge Henrye the Sixthe of the name, 
and faithfullye copyed by me John Leylande, antiquariiis, by the 
cammaunde of His Highnesse. They be as folloivethe : 

Quest. What mote ytt be? 

Answ. Ytt beeth the skylle of nature, the understondynge of 
the myghte that ys hereynne, and its sondrye wreckynges ; sonder- 
lyche, the skylle of rectenyngs, of waightes, and metynges, and 
the treu manere of faconnynge all thynges for mannes use, 
headlye, dwellynges, and buyldyngs of alle kinds, and alle odher 
thynges that make gudde to manne. 

Quest. Where dyd ytt begynne ? 

Answ. Ytt dyd begynne with the fyrste menne yn the Este, 
which were before the ffyrste manne of the Weste, and comynge 
westlye, ytt hathe brought herwyth alle comfortes to the ivylde 
and comfortlesse. 

Quest. Who dyd brynge ytt westlye ? 

Answ. The Venetians, who being grate merchaundes, corned 
ffyrst ffromme the Este ynn Venetia, ffor the commodytye of 
marchandysynge beithe Este and Weste, by the Redde and 
Myddleyonde Sees. 

Quest, Howe comede ytt yn Engelonde ? 

Answ. Peter Gower, a Grecian, journeyedde ffor kunnynge 
yn Egypte, and yn Syria, and yn everyche lond whereas the 


Venetians hadde plauntedde Magonrye, and wynnage entraunces 
yn al lodges of Magonnes, he lerned muche, and retournedde, 
and waned yn Grecia Magna wachsynge, and becommynge a 
myghtye wyseacre, and gratelyche renowned, and her he framed 
a grate lodge at Groton, and maked manye Magonnes, some 
whereoffe dyd journeye in Fraunce, and maked manye Magonnes, 
wherefromme, yn processe of tyme, the arte passed yn Engelonde. 

Quest. Dothe Magonnes descouer there arts unto odhers ? 

Answ. Peter Gower, when he journeyedde to lernne, was 
ffyrste made, and anonne techedde ; evenne soe shulde all odhers 
beyn recht. Natheless, Magonnes haueth always yn everyche 
tyme from tyme to tyme communicatedde to mankynde soche 
of her secrettes as generallyche myghte be usefulle ; they haueth 
keped backe soche allein as shulde be harmfulle yff they commed 
yn euylle haundes, oder soche as ne myght be holpynge wythouten 
the techynges to be joynedde herwythe in the lodge ; oder soche 
as do bynde the Freres more strongelyche together, bey the 
proffyte and commodytye comynge to the Confrerie herfromme. 

Quest. Whatte arts haueth the Magonnes techedde mankynde? 



Quest. Howe commeth Magonnes more teachers than odher 
menne ? 

Answ. The hemselfe haueth allein in arte of fyndynge neue 
artes, whyche art the ffyrste Magonnes receaued from Godde ; 
by the whyche they fyndethe what artes hem plesethe, and the 
treu way of techynge the same. Whatt odher menne doethe 
ffynde out, ys onelyche by chaunce, and herefore but lytle I tro. 


Quest. Whatte dothe the Ma9onnes concele and hyde ? 

Answ. They concelethe the art of ffynding new arts, and thatt 
ys for here own proffytte, and preise : they concelethe the art of 
kepynge secrettes, thatt so the worlde mayeth nothinge concele 
from them. They concelethe the art of wunderwerckynge, and 
of sore sayinge thynges to comme, thatt so thay same artes may 
not be usedde of the wyckedde to an euylle ende ; they also 
concelethe the arte of chaunges, the wey of wynnynge the facultye 
of A brae, the skille of becomynge gude and parfyghte wythouten 
the holpynges of fere and hope ; and the universalle longage of 

Quest. Wylle he teche me thay same artes ? 

Answ. Ye shalle be techedde yff ye be werthye, and able 
to lerne. 

Quest. Dothe alle Ma9onnes kunne more than odher menne ? 

Answ. Not so. Thay onlyche haueth recht and occasyonne 
more than odher menne to kunne, butt many doeth fale yn 
capacity, and many more doth want industrye, thatt ys per- 
necessarye for the gaynyenge all kunnynge. 

Quest. Are Macxmnes gudder menne than odhers ? 

Answ. Some Masonnes are not so vertuous as some other 
menne ; but, yn the moste parte, thay be more gude than thay 
would be if thay war not Maconnes. 

Quest. Doth Maconnes love eidther odher myghtyly as beeth 
sayde ? 

Answ. Yea verylyche, and yt may not odherwise be : for gude 
menne, and true, kennynge eidher odher to be soche, doeth 
always love the more as thay be more gude. 



THIS print is a very good representation of the great 
room at Brookess Subscription-House, in St. James's- 
street. The house was built by the late Mr. Brookes, 
about the year 1777, for the express purpose of accommodating 
the political club which had been formed some years before that 
period, under the tutelar auspices of the late Mr. Charles Fox, 
at Almack's. The room is 37 feet long, 22 wide, and 25 high. 
The architect was Mr. Henry Holland. This club is known by 
the title of Brookes's, and is honoured by the names of the 
Prince of Wales, the Dukes of York and Clarence, and the 
principal nobility and gentry, who have usually appeared in 
the ranks of opposition with the late Mr. Fox. The number 
of its members is limited to four hundred and fifty ; the candi- 
date for admission must be nominated by a member, and his 
name exposed in a list for that purpose at least one week before 
the ballot, which can only take place during the meeting of 
Parliament, and when at least twelve members are present. 
A single black ball is sufficient to exclude. The Royal Family 
do not undergo this ceremony for admission, and they are not 
competent to exercise the invidious power of voting at the 
election of other members. 

The business of the club is managed by a committee of six 





gentlemen, who are chosen annually. All new rules proposed 
are ballotted for. The members of this club are permitted by 
courtesy to belong to the clubs at Bath, and also to Miles's, and 
other respectable clubs, without being ballotted for. The sub- 
scription is 1 1 guineas per annum. The game of hazard is 
seldom or ever played, and there is no billiard-table. The 
present fashionable games are quinze, wist, piquet, and maccaw. 

This club has continued at Brookes's for upwards of thirty 
years, and is more properly an association of noblemen and 
gentlemen, connected by politics, than gaming : it is not to be 
denied, that a few years since this destructive propensity was 
carried beyond all the purposes of amusement or pleasure, and 
that some of our great popular characters have been accused 
of indulging a most inordinate passion for it ; but the taste for 
play seems, in a considerable degree, to have abated, although 
some men, of sanguine tempers and ardent dispositions, still 
continue partial to this amusement. During the time this club 
met at Almack's, a regular book was kept of the wagers laid 
by the different members, as well as of the sums won or lost 
at play, which were carried to the accounts of the respective 
parties with all the forms of mercantile precision. We are old 
enough to remember the circumstances which gave rise to some 
of these wagers ; which, as they shew the opinions entertained 
by persons who shone so conspicuously in politics, upon the 
particular subjects to which they allude, may be considered at 
least as interesting as some of the Ana with which the public 
have been entertained : we shall therefore insert a few. 

"March n, 1774, Almack's. Lord Clermont has given Mr. 
Crawford ten guineas upon the condition of receiving SOQ/. from 


him whenever Mr. Charles Fox shall be worth ioo,ooo/. clear 
of debts. 

"Lord Northington bets Mr. C. Fox, June 4, 1774, that he 
(Mr. C. F.) is not called to the bar before this day four years. 

'March u, 1775. Lord Bolingbroke gives a guinea to Mr. 
Charles Fox, and is to receive a thousand from him whenever 
the debt of this country amounts to 171 millions. Mr. Fox is 
not to pay the iooo/. till he is one of his Majesty's cabinet. 

"April 7, 1792. Mr. Sheridan bets Lord Lauderdale and 
Lord Thanet, twenty-five guineas each, that Parliament will not 
consent to any more lotteries after the present one voted to be 
drawn in February next." 

Perhaps no invention has been prostituted from its original 
purpose more than card-playing. 

Cards were at first for benefits design'd ; 
Sent to amuse, and not enslave the mind : 
But from such wise end they must soon depart, 
From this principle of the human heart, 
Which not in pleasure's self can pleasure find, 
Unless it comes with agitation join'd ; 
Which, basking warm in Fortune's sunshine clear, 
Sighs for the shifting clouds of hope and fear; 
And tir'd with looking on the listless deep, 
When lull'd by summer gales to silver sleep, 
Would rather far the tempest's fury brave, 
When danger rides on ev'ry foaming wave. 

The honour of their first discovery is contended for by two 
nations, the French and Spanish. From the materials of which 
cards have always been made, they are supposed to have been 
invented subsequent to the days of Charlemagne. In the three 


Essays on the "ANTIQUITY OF CARD-PLAYING," (Archaologia, vol. 
VIII.) the pretensions of the Spaniards to this discovery seem 
to be supported. Others, on the contrary, attribute it to 
Jaquemin Grigonneur, a French painter, who is said to have 
made them with a view to divert the melancholy which Charles 
the Sixth of France had fallen into, about the year 1390. Those 
who support this supposition, contend that they were not in use 
before that period : 

1. Because no cards are to be seen in any painting, sculpture, 
tapestry, &c. more ancient ; but are represented in many works 
of ingenuity since that age. 

2. No prohibitions relative to cards are mentioned in the 
king's edicts, although but a few years previous, a most severe 
one was published against all sports and pastimes (by name), in 
order that the people might exercise themselves in shooting with 
bows and arrows, and be in a condition to oppose the English. 

3. In all the ecclesiastical canons prior to the said time, there 
occurs no mention of cards ; although twenty years after that 
date, card-playing was interdicted the clergy by a Gallican synod. 

4. Because about this time is found, in the account-book of the 
king's cofferer, the following charges : 

" Paid for a pack of painted leaves, bought for the king's 
amusement, 3 liv. 

" Paid fifty-six shillings of Paris to Jaquemin Grigonneur, the 
painter, for three packs of cards, gilded with gold, and painted 
with divers colours and divers devices, to be carried to the king 
for his amusement." 

In the synodical canons before alluded to, they are called 
"pagellce picta" little painted leaves. 

II. H 


5. Because about thirty years after this, came out a severe 
edict against cards in France ; and another by Emanuel, Duke of 
Savoy, only permitting this pastime to the ladies "pro spinulis," 
for pins and needles. 

By the four suits were intended to be represented the four 

By the cceurs (hearts) are meant the gens de cceur, choice men 
and ecclesiastics ; and the Spaniards have copas, or chalices, 
instead of hearts. 

By the ends or points of lances are represented the nobility, 
or first military men ; the Spaniards have espadas (swords), in 
lieu of pike-heads, and our ignorance of the meaning of the 
figure induced us to call them spades. 

By the diamonds are designed the class of citizens, merchants, 
and tradesmen, carreaux (square stones, tiles, or the like) ; the 
Spaniards have a coin, dineros, which answers to it ; and the 
Dutch call the French word carreaux, sticneen, stones, and 
diamonds, from the form. 

Treste, the trefoil leaf, or clover-grass (corruptly called clubs), 
alludes to the husbandmen and peasants. How this suit came 
to be called clubs, I cannot explain, unless borrowing the game 
from the Spaniards, who have bastos (staves or clubs), instead 
of the trefoil, we give the Spanish signification to the French 

The four kings are David, Alexander, Cczsar, and Charles, 
representing the four celebrated monarchies of the Jews, Greeks, 
Romans, and the Franks under Charlemagne. 

By the queens are intended Argine (which word is an anagram 
of regina], Esther, Judith, and Pallas, names which the French 


still retain on their cards, and are typical of birth, piety, forti- 
tude, and wisdom. 

By the knaves are designed the servants to the knights ; for 
knave originally meant servant, and in an old translation of the 
Bible, St. Paul is called the knave of Christ; for pages and valets, 
now indiscriminately used by various persons, were formerly only 
allowed to persons of quality (escuiers), shield or armour-bearers. 
Others again have fancied, that the knights themselves were 
designed by the knaves ; because Hogier and Lahire, two names 
on the French cards, were famous knights at the time cards were 
supposed to have been invented. 

The ruinous vice of gaming, so destructive in all places, and 
so difficult, if not impossible, to be entirely restrained in any, has 
engaged the attention of legislators in all the countries of Europe. 
In France, Germany, and every part of the Continent, the attempt 
has been made, and made in vain. This very circumstance, 
perhaps, excited in a higher degree the indignation of the Emperor 
Joseph (who would not admit any difficulty to stand in the way of 
his reforming plans) ; he therefore prohibited all games of chance 
whatever, under the severest penalties; and, in the year 1786, 
this law was so rigidly enforced, that eleven officers of grenadiers 
were in a single instance, not only deprived of their commissions, 
but degraded to the humiliating condition of serving in the ranks 
as common soldiers ; a punishment which had till then been con- 
sidered as peculiar to the Russian service. In the year 1788, the 
Prince Bishop of Liege issued a proclamation against gaming in 
any part of his dominions, but particularly at Spa, under the 
penalty of 200 gold florins for the first offence, and two years 
imprisonment for the second. 


By the 12th George II. the games of faro, hazard, &c. are 
declared to be lotteries, subjecting the persons who keep them 
to a penalty of two hundred pounds, and those who play, to fifty 
pounds. One witness only is necessary to prove the offence 
before a justice of the peace, who forfeits ten pounds if he 
neglects to do his duty. By the 8th George I. the keeper of 
a faro-table may be prosecuted for a lottery, where the penalty 
is five hundred pounds. By the statute i6th Charles II. c. 7. if 
any person, by playing or betting, lose more than one hundred 
pounds at one time, he shall not be compellable to pay, and the 
winner shall forfeit treble the amount. The statute Qth Anne, 
c. 14. makes all bonds and other securities given for money won 
at play, or money lent at the time to play withal, utterly void ; 
and mortgages, or a like consideration, to be and enure to the 
heir of the mortgager : and if any person lose more than ten 
pounds at play, he may sue the winner, and recover it back ; and 
if he does not, any other person may sue the winner for treble 
the sum so lost, and the winner shall also be deemed infamous, and 
surfer such corporal punishment as in case of wilful perjury. By 
the statute i8th George II. c. 34. this statute is farther enforced, 
and its deficiencies supplied ; and if any person be convicted, 
upon information or indictment, of winning or losing ten or 
twenty pounds within twenty-four hours, he shall forfeit five 
times the sum. Such has been the anxiety of the legislature 
to suppress faro-tables, and other games of chance, that the 
several penalties have been inflicted, founded on the fullest 
conviction of the pernicious consequences of such practices : 
"and yet," says Mr. Colquhoun (in his treatise on the Police of 
the Metropolis], "houses are opened, under the sanction of high- 


sounding names, where an indiscriminate mixture of all ranks are 
to be found, from the finished sharper, to the raw inexperienced 
youth ; and where all those evils exist in full force, which it was 
the object of the legislature to remove." 

When a species of gambling, ruinous to the morals and to the 
fortunes of the younger part of the community, who move in the 
middle and higher ranks of life, is suffered to be carried on in 
direct opposition to a positive statute, surely blame must be 
attached somewhere. When such abominable practices are en- 
couraged and sanctioned by high-sounding names, when sharpers 
and black-legs find an easy introduction into the houses of persons 
of fashion, who assemble in multitudes together for the purpose 
of playing at the odious and detestable games of hazard, which 
the legislature has stigmatized with such marks of reprobation, 
it is time for the civil magistrate to step forward, and to feel, 
that in doing that duty which the laws of his country impose on 
him, he is perhaps saving hundreds of families from ruin and 
destruction, and preserving to the infants of thoughtless and 
deluded parents that property which is their birthright. 

Tacitus has observed (de Mor. Germ. c. 24.) that, by a wonder- 
ful diversity of nature, the Germans are by turns the most indolent 
and the most restless of mankind ; they delight in sloth, they 
detest tranquillity : the languid soul, oppressed with its own 
weight, anxiously required some new and powerful sensation, 
and war and gaming were the gratifications most suited to this 
temper of mind. In the dull intervals of peace, they were im- 
moderately addicted to deep gaming and excessive drinking ; 
both of which, by different means, alike relieved them from 
the pain arising from want of employment : they gloried in 


passing whole days and nights in this tumult of the passions, 
and the blood of friends and relations often stained their 
numerous assemblies. Such was the point of honour among 
these barbarians, or rather depraved obstinacy, as Tacitus calls 
it (ea est in pravd pervicacid, ipsifidem vacant), that the desperate 
gamester, who had staked his person and liberty on the throw 
of the die, patiently submitted to the decision of fortune, and 
suffered himself to be bound hand and foot, and sold into remote 
and cruel slavery, by his weaker and more lucky antagonist. 

We shall conclude this article by an account of a determination 
(Michaelmas term 1 760), in a cause which had been long depend- 
ing between the executors of Sir John Bland and a French 
gentleman. The case was nearly thus : Sir J. B. had lost at 
play about 35O/. and borrowed 3OO/. more for the same purpose 
of gaming ; afterwards, for the whole sum he drew a bill of ex- 
change upon himself payable in London. According to the laws 
of England, the security for the whole became void ; but the laws 
of France make a distinction between a debt incurred at play, 
and money lent for the purpose of gaming, the latter being re- 
coverable as if lent for any other purpose : hence the cause 
became curious, and gave occasion to very ingenious arguments. 
It seemed reasonable, on one hand, to pay a regard to the law of 
France in a matter transacted at Paris ; and, on the other hand, 
it was urged, that the lender of the money accepted the payment 
in London, and therefore became subject to the law of England. 
It was at length, however, judiciously determined to set aside the 
whole security ; but, at the same time, to establish the contract for 
the 30O/. as valid. 





THE Guildhall of this vast city stands at the end of a 
street running northward from Cheapside. Before the 
year 1411, the court-hall, or bury, as it was called, was 
held at Aldermansbury, so denominated from their meeting there. 
Stow remembered its ruins, and says, that, in his days, it was used 
as Carpenters'- Hall. It was succeeded by a new one, began in 
1411, and finished in twenty years, by voluntary contributions, by 
sums raised for pardons and offences, and by fines. It was con- 
siderably damaged by the fire of London, but was soon repaired 
and beautified, at the expence of 2$ool. 

The entrance into this building is by a large gate under a 
Gothic arch, over which rises the new front, erected in the year 
1789; it consists of four fluted pilasters, between which are 
Gothic windows. In the space above the great door, there are 
two series of windows, above which is the city motto, " Domine, 
dirige nos." The top of the building is crowned with the city 
arms. In the side compartments are four ranges of windows, 
and the top is terminated by reversed arches. The pilasters are 
higher than the other parts of the front, and are crowned with 
turrets in two stages ; the center one is decorated with the mace, 
and the other two with the city sword. This front terminates 
the end of King-street. The length of the Hall is 153 feet, its 
breadth 48, and its height 55 ; so that it is capable of holding 


thousands of people : elections, and every species of city business, 
are transacted here. 

Within are portraits of some of our judges, who frequently try 
causes under this roof. I must direct the reader's attention to 
twelve of that order of peculiar merit : these are the portraits 
of the able and virtuous Sir Matthew Hale, and his eleven co- 
temporary judges ; who, after the dreadful calamity of 1666, 
regulated the rebuilding of the city of London by such wise 
rules, as to prevent the endless train of vexatious law-suits which 
might have ensued, and been little less chargeable than the fire 
itself had been. This was principally owing to Sir Matthew 
Hale, who conducted the business, and sat with his brethren in 
Clifford's Inn, to compose all differences between landlord and 
tenant. These portraits were painted by Michael Wright, a good 
painter, in the time of Charles II. and James II. and who died in 
the year 1700. It was designed that Sir Peter Lely should have 
painted these pictures, but he fastidiously refused to wait on the 
judges at their chambers. Wright received sixty pounds apiece 
for his work. In the year 1779, they were found to be in so bad 
a condition, as to make it an even question with the committee 
of city lands, whether they should be continued in their places, 
or committed to the flames. To the eternal honour of Alderman 
Townsend, his vote decided in favour of their preservation. He 
recommended Mr. Roma, who, by his great skill in repairing 
pictures, rescued them from the rage of time, so that they may 
remain another century, a proof of the gratitude of our capital. 
Among them is the portrait of Lord Campden, who, when chief 
justice of the Common Pleas, obtained this mark of esteem from 
the city by his decision against the legality of general warrants. 


Facing the entrance are two tremendous figures, by some 
named Gog and Magog ; by Stow, an ancient Briton and Saxon. 
These enormous figures are in the Roman warlike dress, and 
have laurel crowns on their heads. The one on the right leans 
on a small shield, on which is emblazoned a black eagle, on a 
field Or, and bears a long weapon, the lang-bard of the Germans, 
used in guarding the halls of the great in ancient times : the 
weapon, and the arms on the shield, are said to denote this 
figure to be intended to represent a Saxon. The other, which 
is said to represent an ancient Briton, has a sword by his side, 
and a bow and quiver on his back. In his right hand is a long 
pole, with a ball full of spikes suspended from its top, a weapon 
which had been in use among our ancestors. The origin and 
signification of these colossal figures, have given rise to many 
ingenious conjectures, the most reasonable of which appears to 
be that which considers them as types of municipal power ; such 
statues being found in the places of judgment in many parts of 
Germany, where they are called weich-bilds, and are set up as 
symbolic of the privileges of the town, and protectors of its 
freedom ; wich signifying town, and bild, a secure or privileged 
place. The Roman costume is not so easily accounted for. It 
was probably adopted by the sculptor for reasons similar to those 
which induce sculptors of the present day, to represent modern 
heroes in the dress of the ancients ; an absurdity which has con- 
tinued too long, and cannot be got rid of too soon. 

At the bottom of the room is a marble group, of good work- 
manship (with London and Commerce, whimpering like two 
marred children), executed, soon after the year 1770, by Mr. 
Bacon. The principal figure was also a giant in his day, the raw 


head and bloody bones to the good folks at St. James's, which, 
while remonstrances were in fashion, annually haunted the court 
in terrific forms. The eloquence dashed in the face of majesty, 
alas ! proved in vain. The spectre is here condemned to silence ; 
but his patriotism may be read by his admiring fellow-citizens, as 
long as the melancholy marble can retain the tale of the affrighted 

The first time this Hall was used on festive occasions, was by 
Sir John Shaw, goldsmith, knighted in the field of Bosworth. 
After building the essentials of good kitchens and other offices, 
in the year 1500, he gave here the mayor's feast, which before 
had usually been done in Grocers'- Hall. None of their bills of 
fare have reached us, but doubtlessly they were very magnificent : 
they at length grew to such excess, that, in the time of Philip and 
Mary, a sumptuary law was made, to restrain the expence both 
of provisions and liveries : but, I suspect, as it lessened the 
honour of the city, it was not long observed; for, in 1554, the 
city thought proper to renew the order of council, by way of 
reminding their fellow - citizens of their relapse into luxury. 
Amongst the great feasts given here on public occasions, may 
be reckoned that given in 1612, on occasion of the unhappy 
marriage of the Prince Palatine with Elizabeth, daughter of 
James I. who, in defiance of the remonstrances of his better- 
judging father-in-law, rushed on the usurpation of the dominion 
of another monarch, and brought great misery on himself and 
his amiable spouse. The next was in 1641, when Charles I. 
returned from his imprudent and inefficacious journey into Scot- 
land. In the midst of the most factious and turbulent times, 
when every engine was set to work to annihilate the regal power, 


the city, under its lord mayor, Sir William Acton, made a feast 
unparalleled in history for its magnificence. All external respect 
was paid to his majesty ; the last he ever experienced in the in- 
flamed city. Of this entertainment we know no more, than that 
it consisted of five hundred dishes : but of that which was given 
in our happier days to his present majesty, in the mayoralty of 
Sir Samuel Fludyer, the bill of fare* is given us. This I print ; 
and, as a parallel to it, that of another royal feast, given in 1487, 
at Whitehall, on occasion of the coronation of Elizabeth, queen 
of Henry VII. whom he treats with characteristical economy, 
notwithstanding a kingdom was her dower. PENNANT. 

* The King's Table, George III. 1761. 


. i. d. . j. d. 

12 Dishes of olio, turtle, pottages, I Ditto tondron devaux a la 

and soups 24 2 o Dauzie 220 

12 Ditto of fish, viz. John Dories, I Harrico I I o 

red mullets, &c 24 2 o i Dish popiets of veale glasse .140 

7 Ditto roast venison . . . . 10 o o 2 Ditto fillets of lamb a la comte 220 

3 Westphaliahams, consume and 2 Ditto comports of squabs ..220 

richly ornamented ....660 2 Ditto fillets of beef Marinate .300 

2 Dishes of pullets a la royale .220 2 Ditto of mutton a la Memo- 

2 Ditto of tongues Espagnole .330 ranee 220 

6 Dishes chicken a la reine ..660 32 Ditto of fine vegetables . . .16160 


6 Dishes fine ortolans ....2540 4 Dishes woodcocks ....440 

10 Ditto quails 1500 2 Ditto pheasants 33 

10 Ditto notts 30 o o 4 Ditto teal 33 

I Ditto wheat-ears I I o 4 Ditto snipes 33 

i Goodevau patte I 10 o 2 Ditto partridges 220 

i Perrigoe pie i 10 o 2 Ditto patties royal ....300 

I Dish pea-chicks I i o 



The roof of the Great Hall is flat, and divided into pannels : 
the walls on the north and south sides are adorned with four 
Gothic demi-pillars, painted white with blue veins, and gilt 


I Ragout royal 
8 Dishes of fim 
10 Ditto fine green peas . 
3 Ditto aspai 
3 Ditto fine fat livers 
3 Ditto fine combs 
5 Ditto green truffles 
5 Ditto artichokes 

vinciale 2 

. s. d. 

. t, J. 

I I O 

5 Dishes mushrooms au blanc . 

2 12 6 

reen morells . 


i Ditto cardons a la Bejamde . 

o 10 6 

peas. . . . 

10 IO 

i Ditto knots of eggs .... 

o 10 6 

heads . . . 


i Ditto ducks' tongues .... 

o 10 6 

- ers .... 

I ii 6 

3 Ditto of pith 

i ii 6 

i n 6 

I Ditto of truffles in oil ... 

o 10 6 

fles . . . . 

? 5 O 

4 Ditto of pullets . ... 

2 2O 

j j 

:s a la Pro- 

2 Ditto ragout mille 


12 6 


2 Curious ornamented cakes . . 
12 Dishes of blanc-mangers, re- 
presenting different figures . 

2 12 o 12 Ditto clear marbrays . . . .14 80 

16 Dishes fine cut pastry . . .16160 

12 12 o 2 Ditto mille feuilles , . . . i 10 6 


i Grand pyramid of demies of 

shell-fish of various sorts ..220 
32 Cold things of sorts, viz. 
temples, shapes, landscapes 
in jellies, savoury cakes, and 
almond gothes 33 12 o 

2 Grand epergnes filled with fine 
pickles, and garnished round 
with plates of sorts, as las- 
picks, rolards, &c 6 

6 o 

Total of the King's Table .374 i o 

The whole of this day's entertainment cost the city 6,898/. $s. \d. A committee had 
been appointed out of the body of aldermen, who most deservedly received the thanks of 
the lord mayor and whole body corporate, for the skilful discharge of this important 
trust. The feast consisted of four hundred and fourteen dishes, besides the dessert ; and 
the hospitality of the city, and the elegance of the entertainment, might vie with any 
that had ever preceded. 



capitals, upon which are the royal arms, and those of Edward 
the Confessor. 

Nearly fronting the gate, are nine or ten steps, leading to the 

Nuptial Table, Henry VII. 


A warner byfor the course. 
Sheldes of brawn in armor. 
Frumetye with venison. 
Bruet riche. 

Hart powdered graunt chars. 
Fesant intram de royall. 
Swan with chawdron. 
Capons of high goe. 
Lampervey in galantine. 
Crane with cretney. 
Pik in Latymer sawce. 
Heronusew with his sique. 

Carpe in foile. 

Kid reversed. 

Perche in jelaye depte. 

Coneys of High Grece. 

Moten royall richly garnyshed. 

Valance baked. 

Custarde royall. 

Tarte poleyn. 

Leyse damask. 

Frutt synoper. 

Frutt formage. 

A soteltie, with writing of balads. 


A warner byfor the course. 

Joly ypocras. 

Mamone, with lezenges of golde. 

Pekok in hakell. 




Egrets in beorwetye. 



Sturgyn freshe fewell. 


Rabet sowker. 

Seyll in fenyn entirely served richely. 

Red shankks. 



Larkes in graylede. 

Creves de Endence. 

Venesone in paste royall. 

Quince baked. 

Marche payne royall. 

A cold bake mete flourishede. 

Lethe ciprus. 

Lethe rube. 

Fruter augeo. 

Fruter mouniteque. 

Castells of jelly in temple-wise 

A soteltie. 


Lord Mayor's Court, over which is a balcony, supported at each 
end by four iron pillars, in the form of palm-trees ; by these is a 
small inclosure on each side on the top of the steps, used on some 
occasions as offices for clerks to write in. The Chamberlain's 
Office is at the right hand at the head of the steps. In the front 

These sotelties, or subtilities, as they were called, were the ornamental part of the 
dessert, and were extremely different from those in present use. In the enthronization 
feast of Archbishop Warenham, on March 9th, 1504, the first course was preceded by a 
warner, conveyed upon a rounde boorde of eight panes, with eight towers embattled, 
and made with flowers, standynge on every towere a bedil in his habile, with his staffe ; 
and in the same boorde, first, the king sytting in his Parliament, with his lordes about 
hym in their robes, and Saint Wylliam, lyke an archbishop, sytting on the ryght hand of 
the kyng : then the Chancellor of Oxford, with other doctors about him, presented the 
said Lord Wylliam, kneeling, in a doctor's habite, unto the kyng, with his commend of 
vertue and cunnynge, &c. &c. And on the third boorde of the same warner, the Holy 
Ghoste appeared, with bryght beams proceeding from hym of the gifts of grace toward 
the sade lord of the feaste. This is a specimen of the ancient sotelties. This was a 
Lenten feaste of the most luxurious kind : many of the sotelties were suited to the 
occasion, and of the legendary nature, others historical ; but all, without doubt, contrived 
" with great cunnynge." 

To these scenes of luxury and gluttony, let me oppose the simple fare at the feast of 
wax-chandlers, on October 28th, 1478. These were a flourishing company in the days 
of old, when gratitude to saints called so frequently for lights. How many thousands of 
wax-candles were consumed on these occasions, and what quantities the expiatory offer- 
ings of private persons, none can enumerate. Candlemas-day wasted thousands, and 
those all blessed by the priests, and adjured in solemn terms : " I adjure thee, O waxen 
creature, that thou repel the devil and his sprights," &c. &c. Certainly this company, 
which was incorporated in 1484, might have afforded a more delicate feast, than 

s. d. s. d. 

Two loins of mutton, and two loins One dozen of pigeons 07 

of veal 14 A hundred eggs o 8 

A loin of beef 04 A goose 06 

A leg of mutton 02^ A gallon of red wine 08 

A pig 04 A kilderkin of ale 08 

A capon 06 

A coney 02 60 


of this balcony is a clock, on the frame of which are carved the 
four cardinal virtues, with the figure of Time on the top, and 
a cock on each side of him. At the east end are the king's arms, 
between the pictures of his Majesty King George II. and Queen 
Caroline ; close by the first is Queen Anne, and by the last his 
Majesty King George I. : and at the same end of the Hall, but on 
the north and south sides, are the pictures of King William III. 
and Queen Mary, fronting each other. 

On the east end of the Hall is held the Court of Hustings 
weekly, and occasionally that of the Exchequer ; and before the 
Hustings, is held the Court of Conscience. At the west end is 
held alternately the Sheriffs Court for the Poultry and Wood- 
street counters. Opposite to the Chamberlain's Office, already 
mentioned as situated up the steps underneath the giants, is the 
Office of Auditors of the City Accounts ; within which is the 
Lord Mayor's Court-Office, where the lord chief justice occasion- 
ally sits at nisi prius. On the west side of the Mayor's Court- 
Office is the Court of Orphans, where the lord chief justice of 
the Common Pleas occasionally sits : adjoining to this court, on the 
north, is the old Council-Chamber, now used by the commissioners 
of bankrupts ; contiguous to it is the new Council-Chamber. 
Beneath the Mayor's Court is the Town-Clerk's Office, where 
are deposited the city archives. To the east and north, are the 
residences of the chamberlain and town-clerk ; near which are 
two rooms, wherein the business of bankrupts is dispatched. 
Contiguous to the north-west is the kitchen ; in the porch is the 
Comptroller's Office, and over it the Irish Chamber. Over the 
piazzas on the west, are the Common Serjeant's, Remembrancer's, 
and City Solicitor's Offices. 


Adjacent to Guildhall, is Guildhall Chapel or College, a Gothic 
building, founded by Peter Fanlore, Adam Francis, and Henry 
Frowick, citizens, about the year 1299. The establishment was 
a warden, seven priests, three clerks, and four choristers. Edward 
VI. granted it to the mayor and commonalty of the city of 
London. Here used to be service once a week, and also at the 
election of the mayor, and before the mayor's feast, to deprecate 
indigestions and all plethoric evils. At present divine service is 
discontinued, the chapel being used as a justice-room. 

Adjoining to it once stood a fair library, furnished with books 
belonging to Guildhall, built by the executors of the famous 
Whittington. Stow says, that " the Protector Somerset sent to 
borrow some of the books, with a promise of restoring them ; 
three carries were laden with them, but they never more were 

Guildhall is at the end of a tolerable vista, which shews the 
building to some advantage : the entrance would have been better 
at the lower end than in the middle, for by this means all the 
beauty of the perspective is lost. The ascent of steps across 
the Hall not being opposite the gate, as it ought to have been, 
is another material defect. A noble front in the situation of 
Guildhall, would have had an advantage hardly to be met with 
elsewhere, and afforded the architect a fine opportunity of dis- 
playing his genius : this opportunity was lost, or at least neglected, 
when the alteration was made in the year 1789. 

Soon after William the Conqueror had obtained possession of 
London, he paid a visit to his Norman dominions ; and at his 
return, in the second year of his reign, he was received by the 
citizens with a solemn procession : in return for which, he granted 


them a charter, written in their own language, which consists of 
four lines and a quarter, beautifully written in Saxon characters 
upon a slip of parchment of about six inches in length and one 
inch in breadth. This charter is preserved in the city archives 
with the utmost care and attention. The seal is of white wax, 
which being broken, the pieces are carefully secured in an orange- 
coloured silken bag : on one side the Conqueror is on horseback, 
on the reverse he is sitting in a chair of state. The rim of the 
seal being almost destroyed, the only letters which remain are 
M. WILL. The following is an accurate translation : 

"William the King greets William the Bishop, and Godfrey 
the Portreve, and all the burgesses within London, both French 
and English : And I declare, that I grant you to be all law 
worthy, as you were in the days of King Edward the Confessor : 
And I grant, that every child shall be his father's heir after his 
father's days ; and I will not suffer any person to do you wrong. 
God keep you." 

The second charter, granted shortly after by William, is a 
curious instance of inadvertency in granting lands almost without 
specification, \x> people without any personal designation of capacity 
or name, or indeed without so much as the date of the year or 
the reign. We can only attempt to account for this neglect, by 
supposing it to refer to some other agreement in writing. 

" William the King greets William the Bishop, and Swega the 
Sheriff, and all my thanes in East Saxony ; whom I hereby 
acquaint, that, pursuant to an agreement, I have granted to the 
people my servants the hyde of land at Gyddesdune : And also, 
that I will not suffer either the French or English to hurt them in 
any thing." 

n. i 


The corporation of the city of London consists of the right 
honourable the lord mayor, the aldermen, and common council. 
Their rights and privileges are of most ancient date. We have 
quoted the two first charters, and refer to the note * for a state- 
ment of others. 

About the year 1284, according to Maitland, the city was 
divided into twenty-four wards, each having an alderman ; and 
each ward chose a certain number of "the inhabitants to be of 
" the council of the aldermen, which council were to be convened 
"by the aldermen, and their advice to be followed in all affairs 
"of public concern relating to the city of London." The number 
of the common council was then only forty-four. At present 
there are twenty-six aldermen, and two hundred and thirty-six 
common-council-men : the place of their assembling on public 
business, is called the Council-Chamber. No business can be 
transacted unless forty members (including aldermen) are present ; 
and the opinion of the majority, in all cases, is decisive, f Until 
lately their consultations were private, but strangers are now 
admitted below the bar, which, upon interesting occasions, is 
much crowded. The chamber is 56 feet in length and 29 feet 
in width. At the upper end the lord mayor presides in the 

* CHARTERS. ist Henry I.; without date, Henry II.; 5th and 8th Richard I.; 
ist, ditto, ditto, and i6th John; nth (five charters), 37th, joth, 52d, and anno 1270, 
Henry III.; 26th Edward I.; 4th and isth Edward II.; ist, ditto, nth, I5th, and 
50th (two charters) Edward III. ; ist and 7th Richard II. ; ist Henry IV. ; 2d, 3d, and 
i8th Edward IV.; anno 1505, Henry VII.; loth Henry VIII.; anno 1550, Edward VI.; 
2d, 4th, and nth James I. ; I3th Charles I. ; anno 1663, Charles II. 

t The principal speakers upon these occasions are usually, of the aldermen, Messrs. 
Combe, Price, Shaw, Birch, Wood, and Atkins ; of the common council, Messrs. Quin, 
Waithman, Dixon, Goodbehere, Jacks, Bell, Slade, Box, and Kemble. 


center of an elevated bench : the recorder sits on his right hand ; 
the aldermen are ranged according to seniority : seats are also 
allotted to the sheriffs on the bench. The different officers of 
the court are seated at a table immediately under the lord mayor, 
on which are placed the mace and sword of state, &c. 

The common-council-men are seated promiscuously on rows 
of benches elevated a little above each other, along the room, 
the whole forming a coup d'ozil truly respectable. The Council- 
Chamber is lighted principally from a dome in the ceiling, which 
is divided into different compartments, of handsome appearance, 
but ill-adapted for discussion, as the voice is broken and lost 
before it can reach half the audience, which was not the case 
previous to its alteration, which seems to have originated in a 
desire to appropriate the room for the reception of paintings ; 
but in this respect also it is defective, as the light on some of the 
pictures is far from being favourable. 

The pictures were presented by Mr. Alderman Boydell. The 
reasons which influenced him to this act of generosity and public 
spirit, are stated by himself thus : 

" First, to shew my respect for the corporation and my fellow- 
citizens : 

" Secondly, to give pleasure to the public and foreigners in 
general : 

"Thirdly, to be of service to the artists, by shewing their 
works to the greatest advantage ; and 

" Fourthly, for the mere purpose of pleasing myself." 

The four angels under the cupola are painted in fresco, by 
J. F. Rigaud, Esq. R.A. representing, by allegorical emblems, 



We are willing to admit, that painting in fresco is better 
calculated than painting in oil for large public buildings, such 
as churches, public halls, &c. ; because the objects represented 
are seen more distinctly at a greater distance, whatever may be 
the situation of the windows, or even by candle-light. But from 
whatever cause the circumstance arises, nobody can view these 
pictures without feeling infinite regret at their present state, 
which we are rather inclined to impute to some defect in the 
composition of the plaister, than any want of ability in the 
excellent painter by whom they were executed ; and we are 
the more inclined to this opinion, as we understand some other 
performances of the same artist, executed prior to these, remain 
in a perfect state ; incontestible proofs, that the humidity of the 
atmosphere in this country does not necessarily destroy works in 
fresco within a given period. 

No. V. 


Painted by Robert Smirke, Esq. R.A. 

No. VI. 


A field of battle near Towton, in Yorkshire, between the 
houses of York and Lancaster, on the 2Qth March, 1461. 
Painted byjosia/t Boy dell, Esq. 

No. VII. 

The Ceremony of administering the Oath to Alderman 
NEWNHAM, Lord Mayor of London, on November 8, 1782, 


upon the Hiistings at Guildhall ; wherein are represented the 
portraits of the lord mayor, the whole court of aldermen, 
many of the common council, the principal officers of the 
city, and several ladies and gentlemen, spectators. 

Painted by Mr. William Miller. 

No. VIII. 

LORD MAYOR'S DAY on the WATER, November gtk. 
Companion to No. VII. painted by Richard Paton, Esq. 

No. IX. 

Sir WILLIAM WALWORTH, Lord Mayor of London, 
killing WAT TYLER in Smithfield ; for which glorious 
action King Richard II. conferred on him the honour of 
knighthood,* and added the dagger to the city arms. 

Painted by James Northcote, Esq. R.A. 

* We shall place before our readers an extract from Stow, SURVEY, p. 221, upon this 

" It hath also been and is now grown to a common opinion, that, in regard of this 
service done by the said William Walworth against the rebell, King Richard added to 
the arms of this citie (which was argent, a plain crosse, gulas,) a sword or dagger (so 
they terme it), whereof I have read no such recorde ; but, to the contrarie, I finde that, 
in the fourth yeare of Richard the Second, in a full assembly made in the upper chamber 
of Guildhall, summoned by this William Walworth, the maior, as well of aldermen as of 
the common counsell in every warde, for certaine affaires concerning the king, it was 
there by common consent agreed and ordained, that the olde seale of the office of 
maioraltie of the citie being very smal, old, unapt, and uncomelye for the honor of the 
citie, should be broken, and one other new should be had, which the said maior 
commanded to be made artificially and honourable for the exercise of the said office 
thereafter in place of the other, &c. This new seale seemeth to bee made before 
William Walworth was knighted, for he is not there intitled Sir, as afterwards he was ; 


No. X. 

The MURDER of DAVID RIZIO in the Presence of 
MARY, Queen of Scots, by her Husband, Lord DARN LEY, 
and Lord RUTHVEN, in the queens bedchamber, on the 
9th March, 1566. 

Painted by John Opie, Esq. R.A. 

No. XI. 

Portrait of Lord HEATH FIELD. 
Painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, president of the Royal Academy. 



No. XII. 

The brave and gallant Defence of GIBRALTAR against the united 
Forces of Spain and France, on the afternoon of September 13, 
1782, representing the Gun-Boats setting fire to the Town, and the 
Garrison defending the Place. 

No. XIII. 

The brave and gallant Defence of GIBRALTAR on the night 
between the i3th and i4th September, 1782, with the Spanish 
Gun-boats in a blaze. 

and certaine it is, that the same new seale then made, is now in use, and none other, in 
that office of the maioraltie; which may suffice to aunswere the former fable, without 
shewing of any evidence sealed with the olde seale, which was the crosse and sword of 
Saint Paule, and not the dagger of William Walworth." 


No. XIV. 

The brave and gallant Defence of GIBRALTAR on the i4th 
September, 1782, where the English are employed in taking up 
the Spanish and French Sailors in great distress. 

No. XV. 

The Relief of GIBRALTAR on the nth October, 1782, by the 
British Fleet under the Command of Admiral Lord HOWE, with 
the Spanish and French Fleets in the distance. 

No. XVI. 
The Portrait of Lord RODNEY, after Monnyer. 

No. XVII. 

The Representation of his Majesty's Fleet under the Command 
of Lord RODNEY, Admiral of the White, breaking the Line of the 
French Fleet on the I2th April, 1782. 


The glorious, brilliant, and decisive Victory gained under the 
Command of Lord RODNEY, over the French Fleet, on the i2th 
April, 1782. 

N.B. These two engagements painted by Mr. Dodd, after 
small pictures by Mr. Paton. 

No. XIX. 

Painted by Richard Westall, Esq. R.A. 


No. XX. 

Painted by Gavin Hamilton, Esq. 

No. XXI. 

The BATTLE of AGINCOURT, fought by King HENRY V. 
on Thursday the 25th October, 1415. 

Painted by Josiak Boy dell, Esq. 

No. XXII. 

A Sky painted on the ceiling, with Angels holding up two 
chandeliers, at the upper end of the room. 


The same as the preceding, at the bottom of the room. 
Painted in distemper byy. F. Rigaud, Esq. R.A. 

There is likewise a good portrait of Alderman BOYDELL, which 
cost the corporation two hundred guineas. 

The following inscription is engraved on a large silver plate, 
inserted in the wall at the lower end of the room : 

"At a Court of Common Council, February 27, 1800, on the 

motion of Mr. Deputy Goodbehere, it was resolved, 
" That the members of this corporation, grateful for the delight 
afforded to them, as often as they assemble in this court, by the 
splendid collection of paintings presented by Mr. Alderman 
Boydell, entertaining an affectionate sense of the honour done 
them by that celebrated patron of arts, and proud of the relation 
in which they stand to him as fellow-citizens, do, in testimony of 


these feelings, request him to sit for his portrait to an artist of 
his own choice : conscious, however, that hereby they are only 
requesting him to confer a new gratification on themselves and 
their successors ; and unwilling that, amid such and so many 
remembrances of sublime characters and illustrious actions, his 
portrait should be wanting, who, discerning and munificent in 
the encouragement of merit in others, combined in his own 
character private integrity with public spirit, and solid honesty 
with a highly cultivated taste." 
V. Woodthorpe, sc. 

We cannot conclude this account of the pictures without some 
notice of the worthy alderman by whom they were presented, 
because we think so noble an instance of disinterested liberality 
deserves to be perpetuated. His active life affords to the rising 
generation a lesson of what may be effected by integrity, per- 
severance, and abilities ; and we have great pleasure in pointing 
out the venerable dead for the instruction and imitation of the 

Alderman Boydell was born upon the igth January, in the year 
1719, at Dorrington in Shropshire. Of the place of his nativity 
his grandfather had been the vicar, and his father resided there, 
professing the business of a land-surveyor, to which he proposed 
bringing up his son ; but his intentions fortunately received a 
different direction, from one of those trifling circumstances which 
frequently determine matters of more importance. We are told, 
that an accidental sight of the delineation of a building which he 
had been accustomed to contemplate with pleasure, excited an 
astonishment in his young mind easier to be conceived than 
described, and made such an impression, as ultimately determined 


him to become an engraver. In pursuance of this resolution, he 
walked up to the metropolis, and at twenty-one years of age 
bound himself apprentice for seven years to Mr. Tomas, the 
engraver of that very picture which had so strongly affected 
him. During his apprenticeship he attended the academy in 
St. Martin's-lane, to perfect himself in drawing; his leisure 
hours were devoted to perspective and learning French. At 
the end of six years he purchased the remaining year of the 
term from his master, and shortly after married. This was in 
the memorable year of 1 745 ; when he published six small 
landscapes, designed and engraved by himself: he afterwards 
published many views in the neighbourhood of London, at the 
low price of one shilling. He engraved several prints from 
Brocking, Bercham, and Salvator Rosa. His perseverance 
and industry having enabled him to complete a great number 
of prints, he collected the whole in one port-folio, and published 
it at five guineas. He very modestly observes, that it was by 
the profit arising from this work he was enabled to encourage 
young artists, and flatters himself he thereby tended to improve 
the arts in this country. Having been eminently successful in 
the improvement of the art of engraving, he directed his attention 
to the establishment of a School of Painting. For this purpose 
he projected a plan, which, considered as the undertaking of one 
man, is great and extensive even in this age of enlarged specula- 

The Shakespeare Gallery introduced a new aera in the history 
of the art in this kingdom, and abundantly proves, that encourage- 
ment alone was wanting to render the English artists equal, and 
in some respects superior, to those of any other country. In a 


letter to Mr. Alderman Anderson, published in March 1804, 
Mr. A. Boydell states, with great perspicuity and with charac- 
teristic simplicity, the reasons which induced him to solicit 
parliamentary sanction for the disposal of this gallery; and to 
that letter the limits of our publication oblige us to refer. In 
the course of a long life, dedicated to his favourite pursuit (the 
cultivation of the arts), he acquired the confidence of all ranks, 
and passed through the several offices of sheriff, alderman, lord 
mayor, and magistrate, with the universal approbation of his 


A too eager attention to his official duties occasioned his death ; 
a few days previous to which, he went to attend at the Sessions- 
House in the Old Bailey, and being always early, arrived there 
before the fires were lighted ; to which circumstance is attributed 
the cold and inflammation of his lungs, by which the life of this 
excellent and useful man was terminated, on the i ith of December, 
1804, in the eightieth year of his age. He was interred on the 
i gth of December, in a most respectable manner, his remains 
being attended by the lord mayor, several of the aldermen, and 
many of his numerous relatives and friends. 


No person can have attended the meetings under a commission 
of bankruptcy, without feeling the necessity of a more convenient 
place for holding them. The number of failures, which naturally 
increase with the trade and commerce of the country, require a 
greater number of commissioners, and places more appropriate 
and distinct, than are at present allotted, in order that effectual 


justice may be done to the unfortunate bankrupt on the one hand, 
and to the injured creditors on the other. There is a great deal 
of character in the several figures represented in the plate, and 
the grouping possesses no inconsiderable share of merit. 

The word bankrupt is supposed to be derived either from 
bancus, a tradesman's counter, and ruptus, broken, or from the 
French words, banque and route : the first English statute con- 
cerning this offence is "against such as do make bankrupt" which 
is a literal translation of the French expression, qui font banque 

The laws of England, cautious of encouraging prodigality and 
extravagance, allow the benefit of the bankrupt laws to none but 
actual traders : but as trade cannot be carried on without mutual 
credit, the contracting of debts to facilitate and carry on trade 
and commerce is almost necessary ; and if, from accidental 
calamities, or from those losses which no reasonable degree of 
prudence or foresight can prevent, a trader is unable to pay his 
debts, it is a misfortune, and not a fault. The law affords a com- 
passionate remedy to his misfortune, which it denies to his faults ; 
since, at the same time that it provides for the security of com- 
merce by rendering a trader liable to be made a bankrupt for the 
benefit of his creditors as well as himself, it discourages extra- 
vagance by extending the benefit to such traders only as are 
industrious and unfortunate. The first statute relating to 
bankruptcy was made against the Lombards, who, after they 
had contracted obligations to their creditors, suddenly absconded 
out of the realm. It was therefore enacted, "that if any merchant 
"of the company acknowledge himself bound in that manner, that 
"then the company shall answer the debt; so that another mer- 

a -i 

- I 

Cfl t; 

a 3 


"chant, who is not of the company, shall not be thereby aggrieved 
"or impeached." 

The first statute concerning any English bankrupts was the 
34th Henry VIII. which has been altered by I3th Elizabeth, 
ist and 2ist James I. 5th George II. and the subsequent statutes 
of George III. 


HERALDS' OFFICE, or the College of Arms, is 
situated upon St. Benet's Hill, near Doctors' Commons, 
at the south-west end of St. Paul's cathedral. This 
office was destroyed by the dreadful conflagration in 1666, and 
rebuilt about three years after. It is a square, inclosed by 
regular brick buildings, which are extremely neat, without 
expensive decorations. The floors are raised above the level 
of the ground, and there is an ascent to them by flights of plain 
steps. The principal front is in the lower story ornamented with 
rustic, upon which are placed four Ionic pilasters, that support an 
angular pediment. The sides, which are conformable to this, 
have arched pediments, that are also supported by Ionic pilasters. 
On the inside are, a large room for keeping the Court of 
Honour, a library, with houses and apartments for the kings, 
heralds, and pursuivants. 

This corporation consists of thirteen members, viz. three kings 


at arms, six heralds at arms, and four pursuivants at arms ; who 
are nominated by the earl marshal of England, as ministers 
subordinate to him in the execution of their offices, and hold 
their places by patent during their good behaviour. They are 
all the king's servants in ordinary ; and therefore, in the vacancy 
of the office of earl marshal, have been sworn into their offices 
by the lord chamberlain. Their meetings are termed chapters, 
which they hold the first Thursday in every month, or oftener 
if necessary, wherein matters are determined by a majority of 
voices of the kings and heralds, each king having two voices. 

The kings are Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy. Garter was 
instituted by King Henry V. in the year 1417, for the service of 
the most noble order of the Garter ; and for the dignity of that 
order, he was made sovereign, within the office of arms, over all 
the other officers subject to the crown of England. By the 
constitution of his office, he must be a native of England, and 
a gentleman bearing arms. To him belongs the correction of 
arms, and all ensigns of arms usurped or borne unjustly ; and the 
power of granting arms to deserving persons, and supporters to 
the nobility and knights of the Bath. It is likewise his office to 
go next before the sword in solemn processions, none interposing 
except the marshal ; to administer the oath to all the officers of 
arms ; to have a habit like the register of the order ; with baron's 
service in the court, and lodgings in Windsor castle. He bears 
his white rod, with a banner of the ensigns of the order thereon, 
before the sovereign. When any lord enters the Parliament 
Chamber, it is his post to assign him his place according to his 
dignity and degree ; to carry the ensigns of the order before 
foreign princes ; and to do, or procure to be done, what the 


sovereign shall enjoin relating to the order ; for the execution of 
which he has a salary of ioo/. a year, payable at the Exchequer, 
and ioo/. more out of the revenue of the order, besides his fees. 

The others are called Provincial Kings, and their provinces 
together comprise the whole kingdom of England ; that of 
Clarenceux comprehending all to the south of the river Trent, 
and that of Norroy all to the north of that river : but though 
these provincials have existed time immemorial, they were not 
constituted to these offices by the titles of Clarenceux and 
Norroy before Edward III. 

Clarenceux is thus named from the Duke of Clarence, the 
third son of King Edward III. It is his duty, according to his 
commission, to visit his province, to survey the arms of all 
persons, &c. ; to marshal the funerals of all persons in his 
province, not under the direction of Garter ; and in his province 
to grant arms, with the consent of the earl marshal. Before the 
institution of Garter, he was the principal officer of arms, and in 
the vacancy of Garter, he executes his office. Besides his fees, 
he has a salary from the Exchequer of 4O/. a year. 

The duty and office of Norroy, or North Roy, that is, North 
King, is the same on the north of the Trent, as that of Claren- 
ceux on the south. The kings of arms were formerly elected by 
the sovereign with great solemnity upon some high festival ; but 
since the ceremonies used at the creation of peers have been laid 
aside, the kings of arms have been created by the earl marshal, 
by virtue of the sovereign's warrant. Upon this occasion he 
takes his oath, wine is poured upon his head out of a gilt cup 
with a cover, his title is pronounced, and he is invested with a 
tabart of royal arms, richly embroidered upon velvet, a collar of 


S. S. with two portcullisses of silver gilt, a gold chain, with a 
badge of his office ; and the earl marshal places on his head the 
crown of a king of arms, which formerly resembled a ducal 
coronet, but since the Restoration it has been adorned with 
leaves resembling those of the oak, and circumscribed, according 
to ancient custom, with the words, Miserere met Deus secundum 
magnam misericordiam tuam. Garter has also a mantle of 
crimson satin, as an officer of the order ; with a white rod or 
sceptre, with the sovereign's arms on the top, which he bears 
in the presence of the sovereign ; and he is sworn in a chapter 
of the Garter, the sovereign investing him with the ensigns 
of his office. 

The kings of arms are distinguished from each other by their 
respective badges, which they may wear at all times, either in a 
gold chain or a ribbon, Garter's being blue, and the Provincials' 

The six heralds are, Windsor, Chester, Lancaster, York, 
Richmond, and Somerset, who take place according to seniority 
in office. They are created with the same ceremonies as the 
kings, taking the oath of an herald, and are invested with a 
tabart of the royal arms, embroidered upon satin, not so rich as 
the kings', but better than the pursuivants', and a silver collar of 
S. S. They are esquires by creation, and have a salary of 
26/. \y. /\d. per annum, and fees according to their degree. 

The kings and heralds are sworn upon a sword as well as 
the book, to shew that they are military as well as civil officers. 
The four pursuivants, who are Rougecroix, Bluemantle, Rouge- 
dragon, and Portcullis, are also created by the earl marshal, 
when they take their oath of a pursuivant, and are invested with 


a tabart of the royal arms upon damask. They have a salary of 
2O/. a year, with fees according to their degree. It is the duty 
of the heralds and pursuivants to attend in the public office, one 
of each class together, by a monthly rotation. 

Besides these particular duties of the several classes, it is the 
general duty both of the kings, heralds, and pursuivants, to 
attend his majesty at the House of Peers, and, upon certain 
high festivals, to the Chapel Royal ; to make proclamations, to 
marshal the proceedings at all public processions, to attend the 
installation of the knights of the Garter, &c. 

All these officers have apartments in the college annexed to 
their respective offices ; they have likewise a public hall, in which 
is a court for the earl marshal, where courts of chivalry were 
formerly held, and the officers of arms attended in their tabarts, 
his lordship being present. The plate is an accurate representa- 
tion of this court, in the costume of that period. Although these 
officers are of great antiquity, little mention is made of their 
titles or names before the time of Edward III.: in his reign 
heraldry was in high esteem, as appears by the patents of the 
kings of arms, which refer to that period, from which time we 
find the officers of arms are employed abroad and at home both 
as military and civil officers. 

In the 5th year of Henry V. arms were regulated, and at a 
chapter of the kings and heralds held at the siege of Rouen, in 
Normandy, on the 5th January, 1420, they formed themselves 
into a regular society, with a common seal, receiving Garter as 
their chief. 

The first charter of incorporation was granted by King 
Richard III. who assigned them a proper office and residence : 
this charter was confirmed by Edward VI. and Queen Mary ; 

II. K 


the latter of whom not only incorporated them again, but also 
granted them the messuage or house called Derby-place, which 
formerly belonged to the Earl of Derby, and was destroyed by 
the fire of London. 

The arms of the college and corporation are, argent St. 
George's cross between four doves azure, one wing open to fly, 
the other close, with this motto DILIGENT AND SECRET. Crest, 
a dove rising on a ducal coronet, supporters on either side a lion, 
guardant, argent, gorged with a ducal coronet. Their arms, 
crest, and supporters are upon the common seal, thus circum- 
scribed : " Sigillum commune Corporationis Officii Armorum. 

Their public library contains a large and valuable collection of 
original records of the pedigrees and arms of families, funeral 
certificates of the nobility and gentry, public ceremonials, and 
other branches of heraldry and antiquities ; and there have been 
few works published, relating to the history and antiquities of 
this kingdom, in which the authors have not received some 
assistance from this library, where attendance is daily given by 
two officers. 

The jurisdiction of the Court Military, or Court of Chivalry, 
is declared by statute 3d Richard II. c. 2. to be this: "That it 
"hath cognizance of contracts touching deeds of arms and of 
" war out of the realm, and also of things which touch war 
" within the realm, which cannot be determined or discussed by 
"the common law ; together with other usages and customs to the 
"same matters appertaining." So that (according to Sir W. 
Blackstone) wherever the common law can give redress, this 
court hath no jurisdiction: which has thrown it entirely out of use 
as to the matter of contracts, all such being usually cognizable in 
the courts of Westminster-Hall, if not directly, at least by fiction 


of law : as, if a contract be made at Gibraltar, the plaintiff may 
suppose it made at Northampton ; for the locality, or place of 
making it, is of no consequence with regard to the validity of 
the contract. 

The words, "other usages and customs" support the claim of 
this court, i. To give relief to such of the nobility and gentry as 
think themselves aggrieved in matters of honour ; and, 2. To 
keep up the distinction of degrees and quality. Whence it 
follows, that the civil jurisdiction of this Court of Chivalry is 
principally in two points : the redressing injuries of honour, and 
correcting encroachments in matters of coat-armour, precedency, 
and other distinctions of families. 

As a Court of Honour, it is to give satisfaction to all such as 
are aggrieved in that point ; a point of a nature so nice and 
delicate, that its wrongs and injuries escape the notice of the 
common law, and yet are fit to be redressed somewhere : such, 
for instance, as calling a man coward, or giving him the lie ; for 
which, as they are productive of no immediate damage to his 
person or property, no action will lie in the courts at Westminster, 
and yet they are such injuries as will prompt every man of spirit 
to demand some honourable amends ; which, by the ancient laws 
of the land, was appointed to be given in the Court of Chivalry. 
But modern resolutions have determined, that how much soever 
such a jurisdiction may be expedient, yet no action for words will 
at present lie therein ; and it hath always been most clearly 
holden, that as this court cannot meddle with any thing determin- 
able by the common law, it therefore can give no pecuniary 
satisfaction of damages, insomuch as the quantity and determina- 
tion thereof is ever of common law cognizance : and therefore 
this Court of Chivalry can at most order reparation in point of 


honour ; as, to compel the defendant mendacium sibi ipsi imponere, 
or to take the lie that he has given upon himself, or to make such 
other submission as the laws of honour may require. Neither 
can this court, as to the point of reparation in honour, hold plea 
of any such word, or thing, wherein the party is relievable by the 
courts of common law : as, if a man gives another a blow, or 
calls him thief or murderer ; for in both these cases the common 
law has pointed out his proper remedy by action. As to the 
other points of its civil jurisdiction, the redressing encroachments 
and usurpations in matters of heraldry and coat-armour, it is the 
business of this court, according to Sir Matthew Hale, to adjust 
the rights and armorial ensigns, bearings, crests, supporters, 
pennons, &c. ; and also rights of place or precedence, where the 
king's patent or act of parliament (which cannot be overruled by 
this court), has not already determined it. 

The proceedings of this court are by petition, in a summary 
way; and the trial, not by a jury of twelve men, but by witnesses, 
or by combat : but as it cannot imprison, not being a court of 
record, and as, by the resolution of the superior courts, it is now 
confined to so narrow and restrained a jurisdiction, it has fallen 
into contempt and disuse. The marshalling of coat-armour, 
which was formerly the pride and study of all the best families in 
the kingdom, is now greatly disregarded ; and has fallen into the 
hands of certain officers and attendants upon this court, called 
heralds, who consider it only as a matter of lucre, and not of 
justice : whereby such falsity and confusion have crept into their 
records (which ought to be the standing evidence of families' 
descents and coat-armour), that, though formerly some credit 
has been paid to their testimony, now even their common seal 
will not be received as evidence in any court of justice in the 


kingdom. But their original visitation books, compiled when 
progresses were solemnly and regularly made into every part of 
the kingdom, to enquire into the state of families, and to register 
such marriages and descents as were verified to them upon oath, 
are allowed to be good evidence of pedigrees. And it is much to 
be wished, that this practice of visitation at certain periods 
were revived ; for the failure of inquisitions post mortem, by 
the abolition of military tenures, combined with the negligence 
of the heralds in omitting their usual progresses, has rendered 
the proof of a modern descent for the recovery of an estate, or 
succession to a title of honour, more difficult than that of an 
ancient one. This will be indeed remedied for the future with 
respect to claims of peerage, by a standing order of the House 
of Lords, directing the heralds to take exact account, and 
preserve regular entries, of all peers and peeresses of England, 
and their respective descendants ; and that an exact pedigree of 
each peer and his family shall, on the day of his first admission, 
be delivered to the house by Garter, the principal king at arms. 
But the general inconvenience, affecting more private successions, 
still continues without a remedy. 


MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL, for the reception of the 
sick and the lame, and for lying-in married women, 
is situated in Mary -bone -fields, near Oxford-road, 
now called Charles - street. This is a neat, plain, and not 
inelegant brick building : it has the decent appearance and all 


the accommodations one would wish in a house devoted to 
charity, without that ostentatious magnificence which too often 
in a great measure defeats the humane and noble end of such 
institutions, where those sums are squandered away in useless 
decorations, that ought to be employed in administering health 
to the sick, and giving feet to the lame. Nature and religion 
teach us to patronize every instance of distress, but most power- 
fully that deepest of all distresses, sickness in poverty. Sickness 
itself will excite compassion, though alleviated by every comfort 
and advantage that wealth can procure : how much stronger a 
sympathy must then arise at the idea of sickness aggravated 
by poverty ; or considered in another view, of poverty disabled 
by sickness ! Most men are inclined, but very few, in com- 
parison, have individually the power, to relieve : public con- 
tributions, therefore, seem the most likely to effect what the 
private bounty of individuals cannot. These considerations gave 
rise, a few years since, to infirmaries, and in particular to this, 
which has the merit and the honour of being the first hospital 
in this kingdom for lying-in women, and of setting an example 
which has been so happily followed. 

The charitable designs of this Hospital were carried on for 
several years in two convenient houses adjoining to each other 
in Windmill-street, Tottenham-court-road, where the first institu- 
tion, in August 1745, was intended only for the relief of the 
indigent sick and lame; but in July 1747, the governors, willing 
to render it more worthy of the notice of the public, extended 
their plan to the relief of the pregnant wives of the industrious 
poor : when the great increase of patients, occasioned by the 
reputation of this twofold charity, soon obliged the governors 


to think of enlarging their edifice, as well as their plan ; and 
the kind benevolence of the public, by donations, legacies, &c. 
enabled them, in 1755, to erect a much larger and more con- 
venient building in Mary-bone-fields, in which the apartments 
for the reception of the lying-in women were in a separate part 
of the building, remote from the sick and lame ; and that ladies 
might visit the lying-in patients without being incommoded by 
the sick and lame, different staircases led to each, the lying-in 
wards having no communication with the sick and lame. But 
the age of delicacy and refinement has succeeded to the age 
of charity and active benevolence. The fair contributors to 
the funds of such charities as are particularly devoted to the 
relief of lying-in women, may dismiss all apprehension of being 
called upon to visit the bed of sickness and of sorrow : the tax 
upon their purse is not extended to their feelings, already perhaps 
rendered too delicate by the agonizing distresses of some ideal 
heroine, or the complicated horrors of some mouldering abbey. 
But that part of the institution which relates to the admission 
of pregnant women, was altered about fifteen years ago, in 
consequence of an offer made by an unknown person, through 
the medium of a respectable surgeon, to advance 3OOO/. and to 
settle 30O/. per annum on the Hospital, provided the governors 
would appropriate a ward for the reception and cure of cancerous 
diseases^ Such an offer was not to be rejected, and the obstacle 
to its adoption was the unwillingness of the governors to narrow 
the extent of the charity, to the exclusion of some part of those 
who were already within its scope. It being however suggested, 
that delivering married women at home would in most cases be 
a more effectual and beneficial relief, than obliging them to pass 


the period of their confinement in an hospital, excluded from 
their families, it was determined to appropriate the lying-in ward 
to the desired purpose, and to provide those who might want it 
with proper assistance, medicine, and nurses, at their own habita- 
tions ; by which means the managers of this charity were enabled 
to accept the benevolent offer, and since that period the upper 
part of the Hospital has been devoted solely to the cure of that 

The qualification of a governor of this charity is an annual 
subscription of three guineas ; which also entitles the subscriber 
to recommend, and have in the house at one time, either one 
sick or lame patient, or one lying-in woman, and to recommend 
out-patients. A subscription of five guineas per annum entitles 
the subscriber to recommend one sick or lame in-patient, out- 
patients, and one lying - in woman. A subscription of thirty 
guineas at one payment, constitutes the subscriber a governor 
for life, with the last - mentioned privileges. Contributions of 
lesser sums than three guineas per annum are thankfully re- 
ceived, and entitle the contributors to recommend one sick or 
lame in-patient and one out-patient at the same time. 

A committee of the governors (appointed quarterly) meet at 
the Hospital every Tuesday, at ten o'clock, to receive and dis- 
charge patients, and to transact the other necessary business of 
the house ; where every governor, though not of the committee, 
has a right to be present, and his attendance is received as 
a favour. A report of their proceedings is made to the general 
court held every quarter, when the resolutions of this committee 
are approved or rejected. The patients are attended without fee 
or reward by three eminent physicians, a man-midwife, three 


surgeons, and a clergyman. The physicians visit the patients 
every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, and on intermediate 
days when particular cases require it. The surgeons attend 
every day. 

Patients are admitted on a letter of recommendation from 
a governor or contributor, who may recommend in-patients, and 
have out-patients on the books, according to the regulation 
above-mentioned ; and when in-patients are recommended, and 
there is not room in the house to receive them, they are put 
on the list, to be admitted on the first vacancy, and in the mean 
time prescribed for as out-patients. 

No security is required for burials. All accidents are admitted 
without recommendation. Tuesday being the day appointed for 
the admission of patients, they are expected to be at the Hos- 
pital, with their recommendation, at ten o'clock. 

The physicians and surgeons meet every Saturday at twelve 
o'clock at the Hospital, where they give advice gratis to all such 
diseased poor who shall come, though unrecommended, and 
require it. 

Perhaps no country in the world can boast of so many public 
institutions for the relief of the poor as Great Britain, and those 
chiefly supported by voluntary contributions. Whatever vices 
may belong to the present day, or whatever deficiencies the 
religious observer, or the moralist, may discover, certainly the 
want of charity is not among the number. It is not to the 
metropolis alone these noble institutions are confined : there is 
not a county without its public infirmary and dispensary, for 
supplying the afflicted poor with assistance and medicine ; and 
almost every town is supplied with some charitable institution, 


for the same benevolent purposes. As we do not promise our- 
selves another opportunity in the course of the work, we shall 
in this place subjoin a list of the principal hospitals. 

1. Middlesex Hospital, Charles-street, for sick and lame, and 

pregnant women. 

2. St. Thomas's Hospital, Southwark, for the reception of sick 

and lame, especially sailors. 

3. Gray's Hospital, Southwark, for sick and impotent persons, 

and lunatics. 

4. London Hospital, Whitechapel-road, for all persons meeting 

with accidents. 

5. St. George's Hospital, Hyde Park-corner, for the reception 

of sick and lame. 

6. Westminster General Infirmary, James-street, Westminster. 

7. St. Bartholomew's Hospital, in West Smithfield. 

8. Lock Hospital, Hyde Park-turnpike. 

9. Hospital Misericordia, Goodman's - fields, for the same 


10. Small-Pox Hospital, St. Pancras, now employed for vaccina- 


1 1. London Lying-in Hospital, Aldersgate-street, for poor married 


12. City of London Lying-in Hospital, Old-street, City-road. 

13. British Lying-in Hospital, Brownlow-street, Long- Acre. 

14. Westminster Lying-in Hospital, Surrey-road, Westminster- 

bridge, for poor pregnant women generally. 

15. Queen's Lying-in Hospital, Bayswater-hall, Oxford-road, for 

the same objects. 

1 6. Lying-in Hospital, Store-street, Tottenham-court-road. 


P . 






17. Lying-in Charity for delivering pregnant women at their own 


1 8. Society for delivering married women at their own habita- 

tions, by whom thirty-two midwives are employed. 

19. New Lying-in Charity for the wives of the foot guards, 

Great Ryder-street. 

20. Bethlem Hospital, for lunatics, Moorfields. 

21. St. Luke's Hospital, for lunatics, Old-street-road. 

22. Samaritan Society, for relieving persons discharged from 


23. Society for visiting and relieving the sick at home. 

24. Vaccine-Pock Institution, No. 5, Golden-square. 

25. Royal Jennerian Society for the inoculation of the cow-pock, 

Sal isbury - square. 

26. Institution for the cure and prevention of contagious fevers 

in the metropolis. 


IT would exceed our limits to enter into the history of the 
ancient connections between Europe and the East Indies 
prior to the establishment of the Roman power ; it may be 
sufficient to observe, that during the existence of this great 
empire, and indeed long after its overthrow in the West, all trade 
with these countries was carried on by way of the Nile and the 


Red Sea. This trade was almost, if not entirely, annihilated by 
the Saracens ; but was renewed by the Genoese and Venetians 
towards the middle of the twelfth century, when, according to 
Monsieur Huet, it was carried on by the way of Caffa, on the 
Black Sea, and Astracan, across the Caspian Sea, and so through 
Persia to and from India. This route was afterwards discontinued, 
till again renewed by the Mamalukes about the year 1300, at 
which time Indian wares were also brought up the Euphrates to 
Bagdat, and from thence by caravans to Syria. "It was about 
the same period that the Mahometan Moors first began to conquer 
India, with a great power from the North, conquering all the 
Gentiles as far as the kingdom of Canara," &c. "The Moors of 
Barbary," says the same author, "are but few in number in India, 
and though the conquerors of India now spoken of were, and 
their successors still are, called Moors, yet they were chiefly 
composed of Arabians, Turks, Persians, Tartars, &c. of the 
Mahometan religion. They were found by the Portuguese, at 
the close of the fifteenth century, to have been settled as far as 
the remote Molucca Isles, before these people arrived there in the 
year 1 500. The Moors in these times are said to have managed 
all the commerce of India eastward to the Spice Islands, China, 
&c. as well as westward towards Europe. In the latter end of 
this century the Soldan of Cairo directed the Indian merchandise 
to be landed on the Arabian shore, and carried overland to Mecca, 
and from thence to Egypt, Libya, Africa, &c. It seems the 
Mamaluke Soldans of Egypt were in those days so exceedingly 
jealous with regard to this traffic, that they would not permit any 
Christian to go to India either in their ships or through their 
dominions. After the discovery of Africa as far south as the 


Cape of Good Hope, the Portuguese seem to have contented 
themselves for a few years, till Emanuel, in the year 1497, sent 
out Vasco de Gama with three ships and a tender, who, in five 
months, got to the north-east of that famous promontory : at 
Mosambique he procured a pilot to Quiloa and Mombaza, where 
he found large ships from Arabia and India. The Moors were 
at that time possessed of sea-charts, quadrants, and even the 
compass. From thence he reached Calicut in India, which he 
found to be large and populous : here were above one thousand 
five hundred sail of ships, ill built and badly supplied for long 
voyages, the compass not being known here : from this place a 
great trade was carried on in spices and other Indian merchandise. 
From thence he returned to Melinda, and so home to Lisbon, 
having completed his voyage in about twenty-six months." 

Thus a new and astonishing theatre for commerce was opened 
to the Portuguese, which they improved for a considerable time, 
till riches begot pride, effeminacy, and prodigality among the 
people ; in consequence of which they were gradually stripped of 
their trade and possessions in India, and a door was ultimately 
opened for other nations, to profit by a discovery, the advantages 
of which they had been unable to defend or retain. About the 
year 1584, some members of the English Turkey Company 
carried their merchandise from Aleppo to Bagdat, thence down 
the Tigris to Ormus in the Persian gulph, and so on as far as 
Goa, and attempted to settle a trade to the East Indies overland ; 
for that purpose they carried letters from Queen Elizabeth to the 
King of Cambaya and the Emperor of China. They found 
the Venetians had factories at all these places. They, however, 
soon after travelled to several other parts of India, also to Agra, 


the Great Mogul's capital. From Tripoli in Syria, they sailed to 
London, having made themselves acquainted with the nature of 
East India commerce, preparatory to their intended voyage by 
sea to India, for which preparations were now making. At 
length, in the year 1591, the first voyage from England to India 
was attempted with three ships ; but so many of the men had 
been lost by sickness, that one of the ships was sent home from 
the Cape of Good Hope : of the other two, the principal one was 
never heard of again ; and Captain Lancaster's, which arrived in 
India, met with but little success, it having been run away with 
by six of the sailors, whilst the remainder of the crew, with the 
captain, were on shore in an uninhabited island : at the end of 
three years Captain Lancaster was brought home, several of his 
men having perished from want. The avarice of the foreign 
merchants trading to the East Indies, determined Elizabeth to 
encourage a direct trade: accordingly, on the 3ist December, 
1600, she granted a charter to George Earl of Cumberland, and 
215 knights, aldermen, and merchants, by the name of "The 
Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading to the 
East Indies." The original shares subscribed were only fifty 
pounds each. This is the very same East India Company, which, 
through many vicissitudes, existed under the same denomination 
till the year 1708, when it was absorbed in the United Company. 
Soon after the English took possession of St. Helena, at that 
time uninhabited, which they fortified, and held undisturbed till 
the year 1673. The great and only benefit our ships receive 
from this isle is, the fresh water and provisions they there meet 
with on their return from India, in providing of which above two 
hundred families are here employed and supported. In the year 


1712, the exclusive trade of the Company was prolonged till 
Lady-day 1736: about six years prior to the determination of 
this charter, considerable efforts were made to throw the trade 
open, or at least to a greater extent than under the existing 
monopoly. In February 1730 (N. S.), a petition and proposals 
were presented to the House of Commons to that effect : as the 
arguments used upon this are nearly the same as what must be 
recurred to upon occasions of a similar nature, and embrace all 
that can be advanced upon this important subject, we shall state 
them concisely. 

The proposal was to advance 3,2oo,ooo/. for redeeming the 
fund of the present Company, for which they were to receive 
only 2 per cent, after the last instalment was paid up.* 

* The benefits to the public by this proposal they stated to be, 

1. That by receiving but two per cent, interest, an annuity of ninety-two thousand 
pounds would be added to the sinking fund, which, at twenty-five years purchase, was 
worth two millions five hundred thousand pounds to the public. 

2. That, as the laying open the trade to Africa, is acknowledged to be attended with 
great national advantages ; so the thus laying open the trade to the East Indies, or the 
reducing it into a kind of regulated company, will be attended with the following 
advantages, viz. It will necessarily occasion a larger exportation of our own products 
and manufactures to India. 

3. It will employ a much greater number of ships and seamen. 

4. It will greatly lower the prices of all East India commodities consumed at home. 

5. It will enable us to supply foreign markets cheaper and in greater quantities with 
Indian merchandise, whereby some new branches of traffic may be gained, and others 
preserved, more especially in Africa and America, and also in some parts of Europe. 
Here the proposers should have been more explicit. 

6. It will necessarily advance the customs and excise, and thereby lessen the 
national debt, &c. 

7. They alledge, but give no particular reason for such their allegation, that great 
advantages may accrue by employing our shipping in freights from one part of India to 
another, more than the present Company has ever been able to do. 

8. It will prevent persons acquainted with the trade to India, from being under the 


In 1743, this Company proposed an enlargement for fourteen 
years of their exclusive trade and privileges, in consideration of 
which they agreed to advance one million for the public service 
for the year 1744, at 3 per cent, interest. This was confirmed by 

necessity (for want of employment here) of seeking it in foreign nations, and even will 
bring home those who are already engaged that way. (This had a reference to certain 
Englishmen engaged in the Ostend and Swedish East India Companies.) These were 
the plausible and principal arguments made use of to the legislature, or within doors, 
which yet were more abundantly amplified and improved without doors, in several 
printed pamphlets and newspapers, which carried them, as is usually the case, much 
beyond rational probability. 

The out-door arguments or inducements for alluring of subscribers to this scheme, 

1. Certain interest from the public of four per cent, for the first two years, and two 
per cent, certain afterwards. 

2. The additional annual profit arising from the before-named licences. 

3. The five per cent, on all goods imported would bring a considerable surplus over 
and above the expence of supporting the forts and factories ; since as they alledged, the 
present Company's forts and settlements do, one with another, more than answer their 
own expence : and even although this proposed Company should be obliged to pay the 
present Company a sum of money for their forts and settlements, (could these proposers 
make any doubt of so just and equitable a point?) yet in a few years there would a 
further annual profit accrue, arising from the said duties : for, 

4. Even supposing the trade under this proposed Company should not increase, as 
however they were confident it would, beyond the amount of three millions yearly at the 
public sales, yet five per cent, thereon would yield one hundred and fifty thousand pounds 
per annum, which makes eighty-six thousand pounds more than will complete the 
annuity or interest of four per cent.: wherefore, 

5. It may be concluded, that the annual dividend will not at any time be less than 
five to six per cent, to the subscribers, since, as the exportations and importations shall 
increase, in like proportion will the dividends necessarily increase. 

Yet notwithstanding all the before-mentioned and similar plausible reasonings with- 
out doors, and of all that their friends could urge within doors, the House of Commons 
rejected their petition ; because, 

FIRST, It was certainly, at least hazardous to turn the East India trade into a new 


an act of Parliament of the i7th George II. cap 17. The debt 
due to the Company at this period was therefore 3,2oo,ooo/. at 
4 per cent, being i28,ooo/. per annum, and i,ooo,ooo/. at 3 per 
cent, being 3o,ooo/. per annum, and their charter to expire at 
Lady-day 1783, on payment of this sum. 

SECONDLY, It was uncertain whether the proposed subscriptions would readily fill in 
due time. 

THIRDLY, Or whether their flattering expectations would answer, either with respect 
to the subscribers, or to the nation. 

FOURTHLY, Whether the king's customs might not be diminished, instead of being 

FIFTHLY, Whether, by the new method of a regulated trade, the nation's general 
commerce to India might not in some degree be hurt and diminished ; for who can 
foresee all the advantages which other European nations trading to India, would be able 
to gain over us by this alteration, or the hurt our trade might receive from the Indian 
princes? &c.: to quit therefore a present certainty for a future (though plausible) 
uncertainty, was not judged safe nor prudent. This same opposition, however, drew 
from the present Company very considerable advantages to the public : 

1. By occasioning the Company to give up one per cent, of the interest payable on 
their capital of three millions two hundred thousand pounds ; and, 

2. To pay, moreover, for the benefit of the public, two hundred thousand pounds for 
the service of the current year, over and above the said abatement of one per cent, of 
their interest, viz. from five to four per cent. ; or from one hundred and sixty thousand 
pounds, to one hundred and twenty-eight thousand pounds per annum, whereby thirty- 
two thousand pounds per annum would be immediately added to the sinking fund ; 
which the Company, nevertheless, were legally entitled to for six years longer. 

Whilst the bill was depending in Parliament, abundance of anonymous letters and 
essays were published in pamphlets and newspapers, against exclusive Companies in 
general, and more especially against this Company's exclusive trade in particular : all 
the arguments which had been advanced for above one hundred years past, against 
monopolies in this and other mercantile Companies, were, on this occasion, brought 
again into the light and re-published : these and other similar arguments, some of 
which were at least inconclusive, if not fallacious, were freely urged both within and 
without doors, and were supported by many eminent merchants. 

On the other hand, it is but justice to the present East India Company, to exhibit 
the principal points then so judiciously urged by way of reply in their own behalf, viz. 
n. L 


In 1767, a committee was appointed by Parliament to enquire 
into the state of the Company's affairs; an investigation of which, 
and other collateral subjects connected therewith, produced much 
animated debate, not to say violence. Among other important 

1. That at present it seems to be agreed on all sides, that the East India trade is a 
beneficial one to this nation, and consequently is necessary to be preserved : but the 
principal question is, which is the best method to preserve it to us, viz. whether by a 
Company vested with exclusive privileges and regulations, such as the legislature shall 
from time to time direct, or whether the trade shall be left quite open to every adventurer 
who shall pay for a licence from this Company ? 

2. It is but too probable, that the present determined opposition to the Company 
proceeds in a great measure from the great gains which the Company makes ; for the 
enemies of this Company are forced to go back almost forty years to search out former 
mismanagements, having nothing to alledge against their present conduct. 

3. That the Company at present employs a vast stock in trade, their sales amount- 
ing to about three millions yearly, and the customs accruing to the public are immensely 
great, and answer the appropriations made of them by Parliament better than most 
other duties, they bringing in net money, clear of all drawbacks and debentures, three 
hundred thousand pounds yearly : would it then be prudent in the legislature to let 
them, i.e. the said customs, fall, without a certainty of at least as much in the room of 

4. That the forts and factories do at present cost the Company three hundred 
thousand pounds yearly, and doubtless the Government could not maintain them for so 
little ; that these forts and other buildings are questionless the Company's property, who 
actually purchased them of the old Company, and are of very great value : who, then, 
shall set an equitable price on them ? What certainty have the Government, when they 
are in their hands, that the proposed open trade will be always sufficient to maintain so 
vast an expence of customs and forts, as six hundred thousand pounds yearly ? for as 
every man is by the proposed scheme left at liberty (and will no doubt make use of it) 
to trade or not to trade thither as it may suit his interest, it may happen that one year 
there may go fifty ships for India, and another year perhaps not five ; and these being 
all separate traders, the Government can have no certainty nor security from them, nor 
indeed from any other but an incorporated body, who have a great deal to lose, and who 
are able to bear the ill fortune of some particular years trading without presently laying 
it aside. 

5. That by the separate traders outbidding one another in India, for the sake of 
dispatch, the prices of goods there would be raised so high as at length not to be worth 


matters brought into discussion, was the Company's right to its 
territorial possessions : but though this subject was frequently 
taken up, the House of Commons discovered no very great 
inclination to determine a question pregnant with so many 
important consequences ; for the ministry (though disposed to 
assert the right), and a large body of proprietors of India stock 
(equally disposed to deny it,) agreed in one opinion as to the 
prudence of a reasonable composition between Government and 
the Company. About this time, a scheme of proposals for an 
accommodation was agreed to, by which Government granted 
some advantages to the Company ; who, in return, agreed to pay 
4OO,ooo/. per annum for two years, and to indemnify the revenue 

the buying ; and, for the like reason, at home they would so undersell each other, till the 
goods would not be worth selling, which was the case for the small time that the two 
Companies (the old and the new ones) and the separate traders contended against each 
other, whereby they did all very much hurt the trade. 

6. That an united Company will always be more diligent to watch the encroachments 
and attempts of other European nations in India, than separate traders will, or can be, 
whose views are naturally contracted within the narrow circle of their own private 
interest alone. 

7. That although the Company have a claim to a perpetuity in this trade, by the act 
of the tenth of Queen Anne, cap. 28. yet some doubts arising as to the certainty of this 
right, and the Company being unwilling that their title to this trade (however strong) 
should prove the occasion of disputes hereafter, are therefore content to take up with a 
temporary certainty in lieu thereof; and, moreover, to give the public almost four 
hundred thousand pounds in money ; and, further, consenting that their annuity 
of five per cent, (which is not redeemable till the year 1736) be now reduced to four 
per cent, whereby they lose an annuity of 32,ooo/. for six years to come, valued at 


To conclude, the legislature passed the bill in the Company's favour, entitled An act 
(in the third of George the Second) for reducing the annuity or fund of the United East 
India Company, and for ascertaining their right of trade to the East Indies, and the 
continuance of their corporation for that purpose, upon the terms therein mentioned. 


from any loss arising out of the advantages the Company acquired 
by the alteration of the inland duties on tea. 

An act likewise passed for regulating the dividends of the East 
India Company ; and another for rescinding the act of the 
Company by which they were increased, and restraining them 
from raising their dividends above 10 per cent, till the next 
meeting of Parliament. Against this bill* the Company pe- 
titioned ineffectually. 

* The principles upon which this bill was founded, were, to prevent the payment of 
an higher dividend than the circumstances of the Company could afford, without 
endangering their credit ; to regulate the dividend in such a manner as to put an end 
to the fluctuation of that stock, which, if allowed to proceed, might not only introduce 
a pernicious spirit of gaming, but would also tend to distress the other stocks ; and to 
prevent any encroachment that might be made by any dividend of the Company upon 
the revenue of its lately acquired territory, so that the claim of the public might suffer 
no loss till that affair was finally decided : these were the principal grounds upon which 
the authors and promoters of the bill rested their support of it. The leading arguments 
in opposition to it, were, that by the state of the Company's affairs laid before Parlia- 
ment, it was evident they were in a condition to make a much greater increase of 
dividend without affecting their credit ; and that if they were allowed to be in circum- 
stances to pay Government 4OO,ooo/. per annum, there could be no doubt of their being 
well able to divide 8o,ooo/. among themselves : that the short period to which the 
restriction of the dividend was confined would lead to encourage, instead of checking, 
the infamous practices of the Alley ; and that the proposal made by the Company, 
of submitting to a restriction of the dividend of 12^ per cent, during the Company's 
agreement, would have obviated all the mischief, and secured every good end which 
might be proposed ; but could not be attained by the bill in question, without being liable 
to the objection of violence and injustice. That if a supposition, that a right to the 
territorial acquisitions in the East Indies was not vested in the Company, should be 
admitted as one of the grounds of this bill, a precedent would be established very 
dangerous indeed to the property of the subject ; and that if a legislative interposition 
was permitted to controul the dividend of a trading Company, to whom no blame was 
imputable, and who had lent their money to the public upon the express stipula- 
tion, that they might exercise their discretion with regard to the dividend, provided that 
the undivided effects were sufficient to answer their debts, such a measure might be 
attended with consequences very alarming indeed to public credit. 


The obtaining money from the East India Company was now 
become so much a part of the system of Government, that, 
previous to the expiration of the agreement, proposals were made 
with a view to settle their affairs on a permanent foundation. 
After a long train of negociation, an agreement was at length 
concluded, and an act passed, in 1 769, confirming it ; by which 
the Company continued to pay 4oo,ooo/. per annum for six years, 
and were allowed, under certain restrictions, to increase their 
dividend to \2\ per cent. In 1772, his majesty thought it 
necessary to recommend the affairs of this Company to Parlia- 
ment, in his speech from the throne. The precarious situation 
of affairs in India, the late distresses of the natives, the depopu- 
lation of the country, the oppression and arbitrary conduct of 
the Company's servants, the great decrease of the net revenues 
of Bengal, from various mismanagements, as well as enormous 
and unnecessary expences, and the immense consequence to this 
nation of preserving and well governing our possessions in India, 
induced Parliament to adopt a regulating law, and to appoint 
thirty-one members to enquire into the nature and state of the 
East India Company and their affairs. This business was again 
recommended from the throne in November, and in the following 
year a committee of secrecy, consisting of thirteen members, was 
appointed for this purpose. In little more than a week, a report 
was made, which led to discussions that were carried on with 
great and unusual violence. In the course of these, it appeared, 
that, since the year 1765, the Company's expences had increased 
from 7oo,ooo/. to the enormous sum of i,7OO,ooo/. annually. It 
also appeared, that Government had received by the net duties, 
the indemnity on tea, and the stipulated 4OO,ooo/. little less 


than two millions annually, whilst the Company had lost by the 
indemnity agreement at least one million, of which 7oo,ooo/. went 
to Government, and the remainder to the public. It was also 
shewn, that Government had received profits during the last five 
years to the amount of 3, 395, ooo/. viz. by the produce of the 
annual payment 2,2OO,ooo/. and by the increase of the revenue, 
compared on a medium with the five preceding years, 1,195, ooo/.; 
that the whole of the Company's receipts of dividends during the 
same period, scarcely amounted to 9OO,ooo/. more than 6 per 
cent, on its capital. In short, it appeared that the mercantile 
profits of the Company amounted, on an average, to 464,ooo/. 
which would have afforded a dividend of 12^ per cent. 

The Company being at this period in considerable arrears for 
duty, and otherwise in a state to require parliamentary assistance, 
a loan was proposed and granted them. 

After the House of Commons had occupied itself for two 
months with the affairs of the Company, a bill was passed, for 
establishing certain regulations for the better management of the 
affairs of the East India Company, as well in India as in Europe. 
From the moment this bill received the royal assent, the Com- 
pany may be considered as in a great measure, if not wholly, 
in the hands of the ministers of the crown. In 1776, the debt 
due to Government was reduced from 1,400, ooo/. to 420, ooo/. 
and the Company were otherwise in a flourishing situation. 

On the 2ist of March, 1780, Lord North moved that notice 
might be given for the payment of 4,2oo,ooo/. to this Company ; 
in consequence of which, after three years, the charter would 
determine. In doing this, his lordship expressly stated the right of 
the public either to the whole of the territorial acquisitions and 


revenues, or if the Company were allowed to hold the exclusive 
trade any longer, to a participation of the profits ; and he re- 
marked, that as the Company had not offered such propositions 
as appeared fit for him to treat upon, it was his duty to state 
the matter to the house, and to make the motion he did ; which, 
after some debate, was carried. 

From the debates which took place at the India-House relative 
to the renewal of the charter, the following appeared to be the 
situation of the Company at this period : The stock was valued 
at 3,2oo,ooo/. bonds and other debts i,8oo,ooo/. total 5,ooo,ooo/. 
Their property in India was stated to exceed I3,ooo,ooo/. ; the 
Government debt 4,2OO,ooo/. ; and other effects in England 
would, it was supposed, make up at least 2o,ooo,ooo/. ; so that 
if the charter had not been renewed, the proprietors would have 
divided 4oo/. sterling for every ioo/. stock (after paying the bond 
and other creditors), besides the deduction of their capital. But 
the terms which the minister had proposed for the renewal of the 
Company's charter, were deemed so injurious to the rights and 
so prejudicial to the interests of that body, that all negocia- 
tions were broken off, and the business lay dormant for nearly 
two years : but, in order to accelerate the motions of the directors, 
the minister submitted certain propositions to Parliament, in May 
1 80 1 ; but Government and the directors could not come to any 
agreement. In general, the terms held out by the former were 
considered as so unjust, that it was more than once proposed, 
in the court of proprietors, as the best plan the Company could 
adopt, to dispose of all their property at home and abroad, and 
putting an end to the political existence, to rest their title to it 
on a legal decision. But the uncertain state of their situation 


abroad, obliged ministers to relinquish all ideas of obtaining a 
large sum of money from the Company for the renewal of their 
charter, and likewise to bring in a bill, allowing them, for a 
limited time, to continue the exclusive trade, to manage the 
territorial acquisitions in Asia, and to receive the revenue 
arising therefrom : the retrospective effect of this bill obliging 
the Company to pay the demand made by Government of 
632,ooo/. under a claim of participation in its past profits, was 
altered, and this sum was reduced to 402, ooo/. It appeared, 
from a report of the committee of proprietors, appointed to 
examine the situation of the Company, that there was a balance 
in its favour, at the close of the last year, of i3,458,877/. in- 
cluding the value of the East India-House, &c. 

On the nth of November, 1803, Parliament was called 
together after a short recess ; because, among other reasons that 
were stated from the throne, the situation of the East India 
Company was such as to claim their utmost attention. Indeed 
they appeared to demand some speedy as well as effectual regula- 
tions, and the administration of this period seemed determined 
to provide them. So early as the i8th November, they moved 
for leave to bring in a bill for vesting the affairs of the Company 
in the hands of certain commissioners, for the benefit of the 
proprietors and the public. This bill was accompanied by 
another, the professed object of which was, to preclude all kinds 
of arbitrary and despotic proceedings from the administration of 
the territorial possessions, &c. These bills, embracing objects 
of such importance, occasioned a prodigious national ferment, 
and met with a fate so extraordinary and unexpected, that, if 
our limits permitted, we should give abstracts of them here. 


The arguments in favour of these bills arose principally from 
two sources : The abuses which had prevailed in the govern- 
ment, and the very involved state of the Company's finances. 
The latter became the first object of discussion : the Company 
were bound by an act of Parliament not to accept bills drawn 
in India beyond the sum of 3OO,ooo/. without permission from 
the Lords of the Treasury ; and an application had been made 
for that purpose, as bills were at this period coming over from 
Bengal for acceptance for more than 2,ooo,ooo/. If the Com- 
pany did not receive assistance, ruin was the inevitable conse- 
quence. On the other hand, if it was necessary to permit the 
acceptance, it appeared equally necessary to examine into the 
state of the Company's affairs before the public faith was 
pledged for their payment, and to form some plan of regulation 
to prevent the occurrence of a similar situation. Mr. Fox, who 
was the ostensible framer of these bills, represented their actual 
debts as amounting to u,ooo,ooo/. and their stock as worth only 
3,2OO,ooo/. : this was necessarily a subject of public alarm. On 
the other hand, this statement was pronounced to be absolutely 
false, and the directors presented an account to the house, by 
which it appeared they had a surplus of at least 4,ooo,ooo/. In 
the first statement, only such parts of the stock were credited 
as it was supposed the Company might readily dispose of, leaving 
them in a condition to carry on their exclusive trade. In the 
other account, a general balance was struck of the whole affairs 
of the Company, after crediting every part of the property which 
belonged to them here, and in India, and afloat. On the subject 
of abuses, the reports of the Indian Committees gave an horrid 
detail ; the inferences drawn from which were, that India, instead 


of a resource, would become a burthen to us ; that all confidence 
on British faith and justice had been obliterated, and our govern- 
ment rendered odious throughout India. To these facts and 
conclusions was opposed a general charge of exaggeration : but 
the plea of necessity which the framer of the bills urged, on the 
principle, that the abuses were incurable without a total change 
of system, was more pointedly resisted. The opposition to these 
bills was principally conducted by Mr. William Pitt, whose 
principal objections to them were founded upon their being an 
infringement of chartered rights, and the immense and uncon- 
stitutional influence the proposed measures were calculated to 
create. It was contended, that India wanted a constitutional 
reform, not a tyrannical alteration. That this was an attack 
upon the most solemn charters, that it aimed a fatal blow at the 
faith and integrity of Parliament, and loosened every tie by 
which man was bound to man. That this charter did not owe 
its birth to the foolish prepossession or mad prodigality of a 
Plantagenet, a Tudor, or a Stuart ; it was a fair purchase from 
the public, an equal compact for reciprocal advantages between 
the proprietors and the nation at large. If the principles on 
which these bills were founded should be recognized, what 
security was there for other public companies ? or indeed what 
assurance could we have for a continuance of the Great Charter 
itself? It was folly to suppose the operation of them would 
be confined to the East India Company ; once established, there 
would never be wanting bad men to extend their effects. This 
charter was conceived in the clearest terms that language could 
express, and superior in strength and perspicuity to that of the 
Bank of England : the right by which the king held his sceptre 


was not more solemnly confirmed. The bill confiscated the 
property and disfranchised the members of the East India Com- 
pany : the power indeed was declared to be in Parliament ; but 
to whom were the commissioners accountable ? to the pro- 
prietors ? no ; to a majority of Parliament, which the weakest 
minister might secure with the additional patronage of 2,ooo,ooo/. 
given by this bill. It was objected to on the ground of vesting 
in the minister a new, enormous, and unexampled patronage ; 
and Mr. Dundas went so far as to accuse Mr. Fox of endeavour- 
ing to raise a fourth estate in the realm, which might ultimately 
prove dangerous, if not fatal, to the constitution of Great Britain. 
Petitions were presented against it by the Company, the pro- 
prietors, and the lord mayor, aldermen, and common council of 
London. In short, it was attacked and defended in all its stages 
with great spirit, perseverance, and eloquence. It was, however, 
supported through the house by a large majority of members, 
and, on the 8th December, passed the Commons on a division 
of 208 to 102. The next day, it was carried to the House 
of Lords, where it encountered a most formidable opposition. 
Lord Thurlow gave his decided opinion, that the bill was a most 
atrocious violation of private property ; that it contained powers 
which touched the dearest rights of Englishmen, and could only 
be justified by the most irresistible necessity, which ought not 
to be admitted on the reports of a committee, but was of that 
importance to demand a full and fair proof by evidence at the 
bar of the house. The second reading took place on the isth 
of the same month, and counsel was heard on the part of the 
Company. On the i7th, a motion was made, that the bill be 
rejected, which was carried by a majority of 95 against 76. The 


fate of this bill involved in it the fate of the administration that 
produced it ; and on the 1 8th December, a new one was 
appointed, of which Mr. W. Pitt was made first lord of the 
Treasury and chancellor of the Exchequer. 

Mr. Pitt immediately set about arranging the affairs of 
India: the leading points in the formation of a system for that 
purpose, related to the civil and military governments, the 
revenue, and the commerce. The question to whom the terri- 
torial right belonged, had never been finally settled : this, as 
connected with its civil and military government, was proposed 
to be placed under the direction of the executive government 
at home. Any effect on the constitution by the influence arising 
from the revenue or patronage, was to be sedulously avoided, 
and the commerce was proposed to be left free and unshackled 
with any influence that might disturb its progress or diminish 
its security. It was proposed to subject all concerns which 
related to the civil or military government, or revenues, of the 
territorial possession, to the check and controul of commissioners, 
chosen from the Privy Council, and powers of a very consider- 
able magnitude were proposed to be given for that purpose. 
The debates upon the bill turned chiefly upon its merits or de- 
merits as compared with that of Mr. Fox's. The superiority 
of the opposition in the House of Commons enabled them, by 
a small majority, to throw out this bill on the second reading 
(i3th January); and Mr. Pitt displayed a firmness and magna- 
nimity that have seldom been witnessed, in performing the duty 
which he considered due to his king and his country, by con- 
tinuing the minister without a majority in Parliament, till the 
supplies were voted, in spite of the daily mortification he was 


subject to in such an unexampled situation. On the 24th March, 
Parliament was prorogued, and the next day dissolved. A new 
one was immediately called, which met on the i8th May, and 
the providing for the good government of our possessions in the 
East was peculiarly recommended from the throne. A select 
committee was immediately appointed, who made a report on 
the 22d June : it was ordered to be taken into consideration 
on the 2d July, and on this day a bill was moved for, which had 
for its object the relief of the Company by a respite of duties, 
the payment of their bills, and the settling the dividend. A bill 
of regulation was moved on the 6th of the same month, similar 
in many respects to that which had been rejected in the last 
Parliament : this bill was at once to constitute a new form of 
government at home, and to regulate the different presidencies 
abroad ; to provide for the happiness of the natives ; to put an 
end to all misunderstanding and controversies ; and, lastly, by 
a more rigid mode of legislation, to exclude delinquency, and 
to institute a new judicature for the trial of offences committed 
in India. On the i6th July, a very long and violent debate took 
place upon this bill, when it was committed by a majority of 215. 
It received considerable modifications in its passage through the 
House of Commons, where it was passed on the 28th July, by 
a very great majority ; and, after sustaining a violent opposition 
in the House of Lords, it finally passed on the 9th of August. 
By this bill (with some few alterations, which enlarged the 
powers of the Board of Controul), the political affairs of the 
Company have been regulated ever since that period. In the 
year 1793, the Company's charter was extended to the year 1811. 
When the house resolved itself into a committee to take the state 


of the East India Company into consideration, Mr. Dundas expa- 
tiated at some length upon the flourishing state of its finances, 
and pointed out the propriety of continuing its exclusive trade, 
as well as the government of their territorial possessions. Upon 
the latter point, he insisted that experience was to be preferred 
to speculation ; and therefore he wished not to abandon a system 
which had consolidated the power, increased the revenues, 
extended the territories of our Indian empire, and had, upon the 
whole, been productive of the most solid advantages to the 
country. He reprobated the idea of throwing open the trade 
to adventurers of all descriptions, which would annihilate the 
benefits derived from Indian commerce, and prove the ruin of 
our Indian empire. Mr. Fox disliked many of the provisions 
of this bill, yet not wishing to negative it altogether, proposed 
that the period of the renewal should be shortened, and that the 
year 1 797 should be fixed for its termination, instead of 1 8 r i : 
but this amendment was lost, there being for it only 26, against 
it 132. This bill, as well as continuing the regulations before 
mentioned, appropriated the funds of the Company at home 
to specific purposes, having principally in view the liquidation 
of its debts in the first instance, and afterwards an appropriation 
of part of its profit in aid of the national revenue. We find 
little to notice upon the subject of the East India Company till 
the year 1799. The annual budget, or state of their affairs, 
which Mr. Dundas regularly brought before Parliament, seemed 
to warrant the general conclusion uniformly drawn by him, as to 
the immense improvement in the Company's situation since their 
affairs had been under his management. He now touched on 
a subject of some alarm to the East India Company, but highly 


important to the British nation, and which, in the natural pro- 
gress of events, must one day force itself on the serious attention 
of the British legislature. The Company were not merely a 
commercial body, but were also trustees of the imperial revenue 
in India : their wealth and commerce were not only increasing, 
but there was no want of funds for extending it ; but there was 
no man living who must not be sensible, that all the commerce 
with India, and all the wealth that might be brought home, was 
beyond the power or means of the East India Company. The 
imports from India amounted to no less a sum than five millions 
sterling. If this were true, and the means of the Company could 
bring home only two millions or less, the general interest would 
require, that, in some shape or other, as much as possible of the 
three millions should be brought to British ports in British 
vessels. On the i2th June, 1801, as the last account of his 
Indian administration, Mr. Dundas laid before the house a dis- 
tinct view of financial affairs, and general information as to the 
situation of the Company, upon which he founded several resolu- 
tions ; the most material of which affirmed, that, on the ist 
March, 1801, the debts of the East India Company amounted to 
5,393,9897. their effects to 15,404,7367. and that their sales had 
increased since February 1793, from 4,988,3007. to 7,602,0417. 
which resolutions passed the committee, and were adopted by the 

Since the year 1801, when Mr. Dundas 's statement was laid 
before the House of Commons, the war in Europe has so affected 
the trade in Indian articles with the Continent of Europe, and 
the wars in India, from which very large acquisitions of territory 
have been made, have so far absorbed the funds that, under 


different circumstances, would have been employed for com- 
mercial purposes, that no just conclusion can be drawn of the 
future extent and importance of the Indian trade with the mother 
country : but it is, nevertheless, proper to state, that, since that 
period, the revenue at home has been benefited from Indian 
commerce to the amount of 2,95o,ooo/. per annum ; that the 
exports on account of the Company only have amounted to 
i,975,ooo/. per annum, the whole of which consisted of articles 
the growth, produce, or manufacture of Great Britain, except 
to the amount of 87,ooo/. per annum ; that the number of tons 
cleared out for India and China, amounted to 41,380 per annum ; 
and that the persons now employed on the home establishment 
of this important Company, exceed 3670. 






THIS Prison is situated at the north-east corner of the 
road which runs through St. George's-fields to West- 
minster bridge. It is a place of confinement for debtors, 
and for those who are sentenced by the Court of King's Bench 
for libels and other misdemeanors ; but such as are able to 
purchase the liberties, may have the benefit of walking through 
a part of the Borough and in St. George's-fields. The walls 
of this Prison are very high, and all prospect beyond them is 
excluded, even from the uppermost windows. There is a neat 
chapel belonging to it, in which divine worship is regularly 
performed. The rooms are nearly all alike, and measure about 
9 feet square. The building, which is constructed of brick, is 
very extensive ; and the marshal, who has the keeping of this 
Prison, has very handsome apartments on the outside. Prisoners 
from any other gaol may be removed to this by habeas corpus. 

II. M 



IS a large square, situated a little to the north of Charing- 
Cross. One side of this square is a very handsome build- 
ing, used as stables for his majesty's horses. This is a 
place of great antiquity, and derives its name from the word 
mew, which signifies to moult or cast feathers. It was used for 
the accommodation of the king's falconers and hawks so early 
as the year 1377 ; but the king's stables at Lomesbury (now 
called Bloomsbury) being destroyed by fire in the year 1537, 
King Henry VIII. caused the hawks to be removed, and the 
Mews enlarged and fitted up for the reception of his majesty's 
horses, and the royal stables have ever since been kept in this 
place. The old building being decayed, the north side was 
erected in a magnificent manner by George II. in the year 1732. 
The center of this building, which is very noble, is enriched with 
columns of the Doric order and a pediment. The appearance 
of this building is very much injured by the mean buildings 
which form the other sides of the square : if these were rebuilt, 
to correspond with the north side, and an opening made to 
Charing-Cross, the Royal Mews would be a great ornament to 
the metropolis. 



1 6 3 


THIS Palace has been for many ages the residence of 
the Archbishops of Canterbury : it is a large irregular 
building, composed of many parts, erected at different 
periods, of which it is extremely difficult to convey any distinct 
idea. The principal, and to a stranger the most interesting parts, 
are the gate-house, built by Archbishop Morton, the chapel and 
vestry, the Lollards' tower, the gallery, the library, and the hall ; 
besides which, there are many fine rooms worthy of attention. 
These buildings, with the park and gardens, formerly occupied 
thirteen acres of ground. The name Lambeth is Saxon, and is 
variously written, Lambhyde, or Lamhythe, Lamhyht, or Lamyte, 
or Lamhithe ; which, according to Camden, signifies a dirty 
station. It was probably a royal manor, as ancient historians 
inform us, that Hardicanute died here in 1042, amidst the jollity 
of a wedding dinner at the marriage of Toni with Gytha, two 
noble Danes. By some it has been imagined that he was 
poisoned, by others that he died of intemperance, and that the 
Hog's-tide, or Hock- Wednesday, was kept for centuries after in 
commemoration of this event, and the consequent deliverance of 
this kingdom from the power of the Danes. It is here that 
Harold is said to have snatched the crown, and to have placed 
it on his own head, after the death of Edward the Confessor. 
About this time it belonged to Goda, sister to King Edward, 


who married Eustace, Earl of Bologne, who gave it to the See 
of Rochester. It was seized by William the Conqueror, but 
afterwards restored with the church. In 1197, Lambeth became 
the property of the See of Canterbury, by a fair exchange 
between Glanville, Bishop of Rochester, and Archbishop Hubert 
Walter : the latter of whom had intended to erect here a college 
of secular monks, a plan which originated with Baldwin ; but 
Walter was likewise obliged to abandon the design, in conse- 
quence of a bull obtained from the pope for that purpose. In 
1216, Archbishop Boniface obtained a bull from Urban IV. to 
repair or rebuild the Palace, as an expiation for his outrageous 
behaviour to the prior of St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield. It 
was likewise enlarged by his successors, particularly Chichely, 
who was primate from 1414 to 1443, and who built the Lollards' 
tower. " Neither Protestants nor Catholics," says Pennant, 
"should omit visiting this tower, the cruel prison of the unhappy 
followers of Wickliffe. The vast staples and rings to which 
they were chained before they were brought to the stake, ought 
to make Protestants bless the hour which freed them from so 
bloody a period ; Catholics may glory that time has softened 
their zeal into charity for all sects, and make them blush at the 
memorials of the misguided zeal of our ancestors. 

Cardinal Morton, who died in 1500, improved the Palace very 
much, and built the magnificent gateway ; Cardinal Pole is said 
to have added the long gallery ; other parts have been added by 
succeeding archbishops. 

During the civil wars, and the period of fanaticism which 
succeeded, every building devoted to piety suffered from the 
effects of political and religious bigotry. Almost all the fine 


specimens of art, and even the sacred memorials of the dead, 
were abandoned to the ferocious hands of Puritanical barbarism 
and sacrilegious plunder. Lambeth Palace fell to the lot of 
Scot and Hardynge, who pulled down the noble hall built by 
Chichely, and sold the materials. The chapel was converted 
into a dancing-room, and the tomb of the venerable Archbishop 
Parker was broken to pieces, his body dug up and buried in a 
dunghill. Upon the restoration of Charles I. the wretch 
Hardynge was obliged to discover where the body was ; where- 
upon the archbishop had him re- interred in the same chapel, 
near the steps of the altar. The Palace was at one period a 
prison for the Royalists. Archbishop Juxton finding it almost 
reduced to ruins, rebuilt a considerable part of it, particularly 
the great hall, which is erected upon the ancient model : it is 
a fine noble fabric, yet standing. Archbishop Bancroft, who died 
in 1600, began the library, and left his books to his successors 
for ever ; the worthy prelate Seeker left all such books from his 
own library as were not already in the former ; Archbishop 
Cornwallis bestowed a great number in his lifetime ; and the 
present archbishop has expended a considerable sum in fitting 
up a proper repository for the valuable manuscripts : many 
additions have likewise been made by him, particularly to the 
great gallery, which is near 90 feet long by 15 feet 9 inches 
broad ; to this has been added a bow window, and an opening- 
has been made towards the river, by cutting down some trees, 
which admits a beautiful view of the water, the bridge, of the 
venerable abbey, and part of St. Paul's. The chapel consists 
of a body only, measuring 72 feet in length, 25 in breadth, and 
is 30 feet high ; it is divided into an inner and outer chapel by 


a handsome carved screen : it has a flat panelled ceiling, painted 
in compartments, done by order of Archbishop Laud : the 
pavement is composed of squares of black and white marble, 
laid chequer-wise. The Lollards' tower is ascended by a spiral 
stone staircase, at the top of which is a room about 1 2 feet long 
and 9 broad. If tradition had not identified this room as the 
prison of the ancient religious sect from which it derives its 
name, it bears sufficient evidence of its former horrid destination. 
There are eight large rings fastened to the wainscot that lines the 
walls : it has two small windows, one on the west, and another on 
the north side ; there is likewise a chimney on the north side, 
upon which are various scratches, half sentences, initials, &c. 
cut with rude instruments by the prisoners who have been 
supposed to have inhabited this apartment ; they are in the old 
English character, and not easily decyphered. The exterior of 
this tower has a venerable appearance, and is the only part 
remaining built entirely of stone : it is five stories high ; the 
lower stories are now used as cellars. The building is finely 
shaded with the venerable trees of what is called the Bishop's- 

The building of the gallery is ascribed to Cardinal Pole. It 
is entitled to particular attention, from the valuable collection of 
portraits of primates and other dignitaries with which it is 
ornamented : among them is a portrait of the founder, which is 
supposed by Ducarel to be genuine. 

Among the portraits are those of Archbishops Arundel and 
Chichely. The fine portrait of War/tarn, painted by Holbein : 
this picture is well known from Vertue's large print. Archbishop 
Parker, supposed to be painted by Richard Lyne. There 


is a second portrait of the same prelate, said to be by Holbein, 
presented to Archbishop Potter, by J. West, Esq. President 
of the Royal Society. 

Martin Luther, a small head, but whether original or not 
is uncertain. 

Cranmer, Whitgift, and an imaginary head of St. Dunstan, 
Grindal, Sheldon, &c. &c. have nothing remarkable. 

A singular portrait of Catherine Parr has found a place here, 
according to Pennant, not without reason. 

There is a fine picture of Archbishop Abbot, of date 1610; 
and another by Vandyke, of Laud. This last is an admirable 
portrait. The other portraits in this gallery are chiefly those of 
eminent modern bishops, and are too numerous to particularize 
within our limits. The windows are enriched with stained glass : 
some of them are beautiful ; others appear to be of a great age, 
and to have been very carefully preserved. The library occupies 
the four galleries over the cloisters, forming a small quadrangle. 
It is said by Aubrey to have been founded by Sheldon, but there 
is evidence of its having existed at a much earlier period. It 
was more probably founded by Boniface. 

In 1646, the library was seized by the Parliament, about two 
years after Laud was executed. It was saved from destruction 
by an ingenious device of Mr. Selden, who suggested to the 
University of Cambridge their right to the books : Juxton, and 
afterwards Sheldon, applied for them to be returned, which was 
accordingly done after the Restoration. 

The whole number deposited in this library exceeds 25,00x3 
volumes, and were valued at 2,5OO/. -J. L. Neva's LIVES, &c. 

The library contains many paintings and curiosities, and some 


neat views of this Palace ; an original impression of the large 
scarce plan of London, by Ralph Aggas ; a set of prints of all 
the Archbishops of Canterbury from 1 504 ; and a series of the 
most eminent reformers of the Protestant church. The windows 
likewise contain some beautiful stained glass. 

Near the chimney is a singular curiosity ; the shell of a land 
tortoise, which lived to the great age of 120 years, and might 
possibly have lived till this time if it had not been killed by the 
negligence of the gardener. The hall is a noble building, and 
measures 93 feet in length, in breadth 38, and in height upwards 
of 50 : the architecture was intended to be Gothic, but is really 
of a very mixed kind. It stands on the site of the old hall, and 
was built by Archbishop Juxton ; who could not be persuaded to 
build it in a more modern style, though it would have cost less 
money. The roof is slated, and ornamented with a noble lantern, 
which rises in the center ; at the top are the arms of the See of 
Canterbury, quartered with those of Juxton, and surmounted 
with the archiepiscopal mitre : the roof is a work of much labour 
and ingenuity, and is constructed entirely of oak. At the upper 
end of the hall is the archbishop's seat : the whole is wainscotted 
to a great height, and the floor handsomely paved. Two of 
the great oak tables are dated 1664. "The reason," says the 
historian of the Palace, " why such large halls were built in the 
seats and houses of our ancient nobility and gentry, was, that 
there might be room to exercise the generous hospitality which 
prevailed among our ancestors ; and which was, without question, 
duly exercised by most of the great possessors of this mansion, 
though not particularly recorded, but most eminently by Win- 
chelsey, Cranmer, and Parker." 


Cardinal Pole had a patent from Philip and Mary to retain 
100 servants. 

Parker had a similar grant for forty.* 

* But he had a great many more, as appears from the chequer-roll of his 
household : 

"All these had allowance for their diett in the hall at Lamhith, as first was the 
steward's table, on the one side for himself, his two fellow-officers, gentlemen of the 
horse, secretaries, gentleman usher, that waited not at the archbishop's table with other 
gentlemen waiters ; and if al cold not sit theare, thei were placed at the gentlemen's 
table : next to that table, over against the steward's table, on the other side of the hall, 
had the almoner his table, with the chapleins and the stewdents, and either of thes 
tables had like allowance of diett, manchet, and wine. The gentlemen's long table, at 
first sitting, was for some gentlemen of household and manors, and for the archbishop's 
waiters, when he had dined ; on the other side, against them, sat the yeoman waiters, 
and yeoman officers that attended not, and meaner sort of strangers. At the table next 
the hall dore, sat the cooks and attendant yeomen officers ; over against them, sat the 
gromes (before mentioned) of the stable and other extern places ; then at the nether end 
of the hall, by the pantry, was a table whereat was dailie entertained eyht or ten of the 
poor of the town by turns." 

Strype gives us this further account of Archbishop Parker's hospitality : 

" In the daily eating, this was the custom : the steward, with the servants that were 
gentlemen of better rank, sat down at the tables in the hall on the right hand, and the 
almoner, with the clergy and the other servants, sat on the other side, where there was 
plenty of all sorts of provision, both for eating and drinking ; the daily fragments 
thereof did suffice to fill the bellies of a great number of poor haungry people that 
waited at the gate : and so constant and unfailing was the provision at my lord's table, 
that whoever came in either at dinner or supper, being not above the degree of a knight, 
might here be entertained worthy of his quality, either at the steward's or almoner's 
table ; and, moreover, it was the archbishop's command to his servants, that all strangers 
should be received and treated with all manner of civility and respect, and that places 
at the table should be assigned to them according to their dignity and quality, which 
redounded much to the praise and commendation of the archbishop. The discourse 
and conversation at meals was devoid of all brawls and loud talking, and, for the most 
part, consisted in framing men's manners to religion, or in some other honest and 
beseeming subject. There was a monitor of the hall, and if it happened that any spoke 
too loud, or concerning things less decent, it was presently hushed by one that cried 
silence. The archbishop loved hospitality, and no man shewed it so much, or with 
better order, though he himself was very abstemious." 

Indeed, before Parker's time, the charity of the archbishops was truly astonishing. 
Robert Winchelsey, during his primacy, we are informed by Godwin, not only maintained 


Besides what we have mentioned, there are many other noble 
apartments in this extensive residence, which contain nothing 
very interesting. 

The great gate was built about the year 1490, by Cardinal 
Morton, in the manner we now see it. It is perhaps the most 
magnificent building of the kind existing, for its size and height. 
On one side of the porter's lodge is a small room, with three 
great iron rings fastened to the wall ; from which circumstance, 
it has been suggested that this room was a supplemental prison 
to the Lollards' tower. At this gate the dole annually given by 
the archbishops of the See of Canterbury is distributed. 

The dole now given at Lambeth-gate consists of fifteen 
quartern loaves, nine stone of beef, and five shillings worth of 
halfpence : they are divided into three equal proportions, and 
distributed, every Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday, among thirty 
poor parishioners of Lambeth. The beef is made into broth, 
and thickened with oatmeal, divided into ten equal shares, and is 
distributed with half of one of the loaves, a pitcher of the broth, 
and two-pence, to as many poor persons, who are thus weekly 

many poor scholars at the universities, but was exceedingly bountiful to other persons in 
distress ; " insomuch," says he, " as therein I think he excelled all the archbishops that 
either were before or after him. Besides the daily fragments of his house, he gave every 
Friday and Sunday unto every beggar that came to his doore, a loafe of breade of a 
farthing price (sufficient for a day, according to Stowe) ; and there were usually on such 
alms-days, in time of dearth, to the number of 5000, but in a plentiful 4000, and seldom or 
never under, which, commitnibus annis, amounted unto 500 a yere : over and above this, 
he used to give, on every great festival-day, 150 pence to so many poore people, and 
sende daily meate, drink, and breade, unto such as, by reason of age or sickness, were 
not able to fetch alms at his gate, and to sende money, meate, and apparel, &c. to such 
as he thought wanted the same and were ashamed to beg ; but of all other he was wont 
to take the greatest compassion upon those that by any misfortune were decaied, and 
had fallen from wealth to poor estate." 


relieved by rotation. Besides this relief, his grace distributes very 
considerable sums annually to poor housekeepers. A correspon- 
dent in the Gentlemaris Magazine mentions a custom annually 
observed at Lambeth Palace-gate, and is described as follows : 

" On the annual aquatic procession of the Lord Mayor of 
London to Westminster, the barge of the company of stationers, 
which is usually the first in the shew, proceeds to Lambeth 
Palace, where, for time immemorial, they have received a 
present of sixteen bottles of the archbishop's prime wine. This 
custom, I am informed, originated at the beginning of the present 
century. When Archbishop Tenison enjoyed the see, a very 
near relation of his, who happened to be master of the stationers' 
company, thought it a compliment to call there in full state, and 
in his barge : when the archbishop being informed that the 
number of the company within the barge was thirty-two, he 
thought that a pint of wine for each would not be disagreeable ; 
and ordered, at the same time, that a sufficient quantity of new 
bread and old cheese, with plenty of strong ale, should be given 
to the watermen and the attendants : and from that accidental 
circumstance it has grown into a settled custom. The company, 
in return, present to the archbishop a copy of the several 
almanacks which they have the peculiar privilege of publishing." 

The park and the gardens owe much of their elegance to the 
taste of the late archbishop, by whom they were enlarged and 
laid out: they now occupy at least eighteen acres. These gardens 
contain two uncommon fig-trees, the planting of which tradition 
ascribes to Cardinal Pole ; they cover a surface of wall extending 
50 feet in height and 40 in breadth. The kitchen garden is 
entirely walled in, and contains between three and four acres. 


In the riots of 1780, the Palace of Lambeth narrowly escaped 
destruction. A party of the mob, consisting of about 500, came 
to the Palace with great military parade, crying " No Popery," 
and threatened to return in the evening, the gates being shut. 
In the mean time, a party of about 100 of the guards arrived : 
the mob continued to parade and threaten for some days. In this 
alarming situation, the Archbishop Cornwallis and his family were 
persuaded to retire from the Palace, which they did on the 7th 
June, not leaving a single soldier within the walls. About seven 
in the evening, a party of the North Hants arrived ; and from 
this period till August nth, from 200 to 300 soldiers were 
quartered in the Palace : the officers were lodged in the best 
apartments, and entertained with great hospitality by the two 
chaplains, at the expence of the archbishop. As to the soldiers, 
they attended chapel regularly, morning and evening ; and, with 
their wives and children, had their meals in the hall : such of 
them as were upon duty had their meals afterwards. They were 
accommodated for sleeping in the stables, coach-houses, &c.; and 
during their stay at Lambeth, from the 6th June to August 11, 
not the least complaint could be made of irregular behaviour in 
any one individual, through the great attention of the different 
officers who commanded them. 

In the summer of the year 1783, a most daring robbery was 
committed here. His grace had directed several alterations to 
be made : a great number of workmen were employed ; and for 
greater security, a door leading to the plate-closet was bricked up. 

The person who acted as chief agent in the robbery was a 
labourer. This man conducted himself so artfully, that the 
steward, observing him sitting on the stairs at meal-times, and 


admiring what he thought his sobriety, ordered him a pint of ale 
every day ; but the fact appears to be, that he chose these oppor- 
tunities for making his observations. 

The robbery was discovered the morning after it was com- 
mitted : the fresh brick-work having been removed from the 
door-way, and an old cutlass, with which it had been done, lay 
on the ground. On searching the chest, plate worth 3ooo/. was 
missed. Great exertions were made to find out the culprits, but 
to no purpose : at length they were discovered in a very extra- 
ordinary manner. Some months had now elapsed, when it 
happened that two lightermen, who had been kept up by the 
tide running late, thought they heard an unusual noise in a 
timber-yard adjoining them ; and climbing up the wall, observed 
two men, as they thought, hammering pewter pots. Arming 
themselves with pistols, they scaled the walls, upon which the 
whole party disappeared immediately : they were, however, 
fortunate enough to catch one man at the entrance of a drain ; 
who, being threatened, acknowledged the robbery. A consider- 
able part of the plate was found in the drain, part of it was 
traced to a melting-house in Thames-street, and upwards of 3<x>/. 
worth had been sold to refiners in London. The man thus taken 
was the only one who suffered for this robbery : his companions 
effected their escape to Holland ; and though they were after- 
wards seen in London, and might have been secured, the 
archbishop, having delivered up one criminal as an example to 
public justice, humanely forbore to prosecute. 

The loss sustained by this robbery, independent of the plate 
recovered, was estimated at iooo/. 


THIS place has acquired a celebrity in the commercial 
world, which entitles it to notice in a work of this nature. 
Its name is supposed to have been derived originally 
from a coffee-house in Lombard-street, kept by a person named 
Lloyd, much frequented, about the middle of the last century, by 
merchants, bankers, &c. It is in the nature of success to create 
rivalship : accordingly, about fifty years since, a house was opened 
in Pope's Head-alley (in opposition to the former house), which 
assumed the name of New Lloyd's: this occasioned a great falling 
off in the business of the old house, which eventually declined 

The trade of the country increasing very fast about the year 
1771 or 2, Neva Lloyd's was found to be insufficient for the 
accommodation of the merchants, ship-owners, &c. who made it 
a place of meeting for business ; in consequence of which about 
one hundred merchants entered into a subscription, for the 
purpose of erecting another house upon a more enlarged and 
liberal scale. At this period, the buildings now called Lloyd's 
being offered to them, they were taken, as their contiguity to the 
Royal Exchange, and the extensive accommodations which they 
afforded, made the situation extremely desirable : the subscribers 
were therefore only called upon for i5/. upon their subscriptions; 

LLOYD'S 175 

which sum is at present paid by every gentleman who is admitted. 
This payment is placed in a fund to answer any demands for the 
interest of the house, and by means of it the rooms are supported. 
This society has for some years shewn the example of many 
liberal subscriptions for the relief of sufferers in our naval 
victories ; and towards the Patriotic Fund the subscribers voted 
2O,ooo/. besides their individual subscriptions, many of which 
amounted to iooo/. and we believe there were none under ioo/. 

The subscription-room, which is represented in the plate, is 
74 feet 8 inches long, 19 feet 5 inches wide, and 18 feet 8 inches 
high: it was opened in the year 1786. The adjoining room is 
85 feet 2 inches long, 21 feet wide, and 19 feet i inch high, and 
was opened in the year 1791. A third room, adjoining, is 61 feet 
9 inches long, 20 feet wide, and 18 feet 7 inches high, and was 
opened in 1802. These rooms are for the use of merchants, 
underwriters, brokers, &c. 

There are besides two coffee-rooms, one of which is 55 feet 

2 inches long, 15 feet 6 inches wide, and 17 feet 6 inches high 
the other is 48 feet 8 inches long, 20 feet wide, and 20 feet 

3 inches high: these were opened in the year 1774, at which 
time the latter was appropriated for the use of subscribers only. 
In the former, ships are now sold by auction, and notices of 
vessels bound to the Leeward Islands are put up : they are both 
principally frequented by persons more immediately connected 
with concerns of this nature. There are two other rooms for 
committees on the affairs of the house, which are fitted up with 
maps, &c. 



E \DENH ALL is a large and extensive building, of 
considerable antiquity ; it is situated upon the south side, 
and near the west end, of Leadenhall-street : it was 
originally a manor-house of Sir Hugh Neville, and was purchased 
by the great Whittington in the year 1408, and by him presented 
to the city. In the year 1419, Sir Thomas (or Simon) Eyre, 
erected a public granary, with a view to supply the wants of the 
poor in seasons of scarcity. This granary was built with stone, 
in nearly its present form : it has flat battlements at the top, 
which are covered with lead. In the year 1511, a great scarcity 
was apprehended, but the munificent precaution of Roger 
Archiley had filled this granary, which contributed in a great 
measure to alleviate the distresses that succeeded. A chapel 

was built by Sir Eyre, in the square, and 3000 marks left 

to the drapers' company for its endowment, but the institution 
was never executed. In 1406, a religious house was founded by 
William Rouse and two others, for the support of sixty priests, 
whose duty it was to perform divine service daily to those who 
frequented the market. 

This house has been applied to many other purposes : at one 
period it was the city arsenal ; and from its strength, was 
considered as the principal fortress of the city in case of popular 
tumult. Stowe says, "that, in his youth, the common beam for 
weighing wool and other wares, was in a part of the north 


quadrant, on the east side of the north gate ; on the west side of 
the gate were scales to weigh meal ; the other three sides were 
reserved, for the most part, to the making and resting of the 
pageants shewed at the Midsummer, in the watch ; the remnant 
of the sides and quadrants were employed for the stowage of 
woolpacks, but not closed up : the lofts above were partly used 
by painters in working for the decking of pageants and other 
devices ; and the residue was let to merchants, wool-winders, and 
packers." It is at present the largest, and perhaps the best 
supplied market in Europe: it consists of three squares, or courts; 
the first of which opens into Leadenhall-street, and is called the 
Beef-market : on Tuesdays this court is a market for leather ; on 
Thursdays, for Colchester baize and for wool ; on Fridays it is a 
market for hides ; and on Saturdays, for beef. The second court 
was formerly a green plot of ground, and is still called the Green- 
yard : it became a store-yard for the building materials belonging 
to the city, and is now a market for veal, mutton, lamb, &c. : in 
the middle, and on the south and west sides, are houses and shops 
for fishmongers. 

At the east end is a market-house, erected upon columns, with 
vaults beneath, and rooms above ; under the latter are the 
butchers' stalls : there are likewise a bell-tower and a clock. 

In the passages leading to the several streets in the vicinity of 
this market, are fishmongers, poulterers, and cheesemongers' 
shops. The herb-market is held in another square or court, 
formed by these buildings. This market was rebuilt in the year 
1730, and is called the New-market : in the same year there were 
shops built in the part called the Old Bacon-market, which are 
chiefly occupied by poulterers and dealers in bacon. 



By an act 24th Henry VIII. c. 3. beef, pork, mutton, and veal 
were first directed to be sold by weight ; no person to take above 
one halfpenny for a pound of beef or pork, nor above three 
farthings for mutton or veal. On this occasion, James Howell, 
in his Londinopolis, remarks that the number of butchers in 
London and its suburbs did not then exceed eighty, each of 
whom killed nine oxen weekly. This law was afterwards 
repealed, and the regulation of prices referred to a committee of 
the privy council. 

Until about the year 1533, the magistrates of the city had 
permitted any butchers to bring their meat twice in the week to 
Leadenhall-street, and there to expose it for sale on stalls erected 
before the houses, the occupiers of which derived considerable 
advantage from the same ; but it being considered, that the 
revenue of the city might be increased very materially by obliging 
all the butchers to repair to the new stalls erected in Leadenhall, 
it was, in the year 1533, ordered by the court of aldermen, that 
they should sell their meat in Leadenhall Market, and no where 
else. About ninety years preceding this period, the Chronicon 
Preciosum gives us the prices of the following provisions, viz. 
wheat 45. ^d. a fat ox i/. us. id. a hog 3$. a goose $d. pigeons 
4</. per doz.; but money was then twice the weight of our modern 
coin. At this rate an equal quantity of our money would 
probably, on a medium, go about five times as far then as in 
our days ; so that the prices were what would be equal to the 
following ones with us, viz. wheat 2/. 35. ^d. per quarter, a fat ox 
i5/. 1 6.y. 8d. a hog i/. los. a goose 2s. 6d. a dozen of pigeons 
3-y. \d. It was this same year enacted by Parliament, that when 
wheat was so cheap as 6s. Sal. per quarter, rye 45. and barley 35. 
they might be exported without a licence. 



We are indebted to the same author for the price of the 
following articles about the same period : Ale per gallon \\d. 
hay per load 3^. 6|/ a young swan 3^. 100 stock fish for 17^. 6d. 
3000 red herrings for i/. i is. bullocks and heifers (these were 
probably but calves) at 5^. each ; fine linen for surplices and the 
altar, at i8d. per yard. 

The butchers' company is of very great antiquity, having been 
fined so early as the 26th of Henry II. for setting up a guild 
without the royal licence. Its present charter was granted in 
the 3d James I. who incorporated them on the i6th September, 
1605, by the name of The Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of 
the Art or Mystery of Butchers of the City of London. It is 
a livery company, and the twenty-fourth in the city list. It is 
governed by a master, five wardens, and twenty-one assistants. 
The fine on admission is ten guineas. The present clerk or 
solicitor to this company, is Thomas Street, Esq. Philpot-lane. 
The number of oxen slaughtered in London is about 2884 
weekly, on an average of sheep 17,303 of calves 763. 

We may form some opinion of the great number of cattle that 
are slaughtered for the supply of this great metropolis and a 
circuit of fifteen miles, from the following returns made by the 
inspectors under the Flaying Act, being the number of hides and 
skins inspected by them during one year, from the ist January, 
1807, to the Ist January, 1808 : 









January . 




July . . 

9, 6 73 




. 12,411 







March . 



5 8 .505 

September . 

II.43 2 




. 12,678 



October . 





. 9,848 



November . 





. 8,912 



December . 





So early as the time of Henry VII. the wardens of the leather- 
sellers' company were empowered to inspect sheep, lamb, and calf 
leather throughout the kingdom. We shall perhaps the less 
wonder at this, when we consider the article of leather was the 
second staple of the kingdom at that period : indeed we cannot 
attribute to it a degree of consequence very much inferior at the 
present moment, if we are correct in our statement, that the 
hides and skins brought to Leadenhall Market are estimated to 
produce 3OO,ooo/. per annum ; that in the hands of the currier 
they acquire an advance in value of at least 1 50 per cent, which 
would make the article in this state worth 75O,ooo/. and adding 
the ratio of 150 per cent, for its subsequent value, after having 
gone through the different stages of manufacture, its ulterior 
amount will approach to nearly two millions : but when it is 
recollected, that many of the articles made of sheep-skin, which 
is perhaps worth only one shilling in its raw state, acquires an 
additional value of seven or eight, this calculation will perhaps 
be thought too low ; it will at least evince the importance of this 
great article of home consumption as well as exportation, and 
may perhaps excite a degree of curiosity to be better acquainted 
with a subject, which our limits prevent us from detailing more 
at large. 


e " 


OF the many noble rooms which compose the interior of 
the Mansion -House, the Egyptian Hall, which is the 
length of the front, is the most deserving of notice and 
attention. When lighted up for civic entertainments, and crowded 
with visitors of the first consequence from both ends of the town, 
the display is grand, the effect impressive, and the tout-ensemble 
is calculated to excite in a stranger no inconsiderable degree of 
admiration and respect for an office attended with so much con- 
sideration. We are not unacquainted with the still higher dignity 
which an upright and conscientious discharge of its duties, confers 
upon the individual who is called upon to fill the chair ; nor are 
we ignorant of the contempt and disgrace which in modern times 
have attached to the weak and imbecile character, who, in a 
moment of danger and difficulty, suffered the sceptre of the city 
to tremble in his hands. 

The Mansion- House is erected upon the site of ground where 
the Stocks-market formerly stood, in the middle of which Sir 
Robert Vyner, who was lord mayor in 1675, in a fit of loyalty 
erected a statue, which he called Charles II. The fact is, that 
anxious to lose no time in displaying his attachment to that 
monarch, and having discovered at a foundery a statue of 
Sobieski, King of Poland, trampling upon a Turk, he was not 
deterred by any incongruity in the costume, but immediately 


set about converting the Turk into an Oliver Cromwell, and 
transformed the noble John Sobieski into the effeminate 
Charles II. trampling upon the usurper of his father's crown. 
Prior to the erection of this noble building, it was customary for 
the chief magistrate to hold his mayoralty at one of the halls 
belonging to the twelve principal companies ; and the incon- 
venience continued long after it became obvious : it was, how- 
ever, at length determined, for the honour of the city, and the 
more punctual and convenient discharge of the duties of the 
office, to build a house as the mansion of the lord mayor for the 
time being. This situation was considered as the most eligible, 
on account of its vicinity to the Royal Exchange, and from its 
being nearly in the center of the city. 

Among a variety of plans, the present was selected ; but it has 
the same misfortune which attends the principal buildings of this 
metropolis. It is so crowded on all sides with houses, that 
its beauties are lost ; nor will the Mansion- House be seen to 
great advantage, till the heavy superstructure is removed, and 
a grand opening in the front made quite into Lothbury, so that 
it may form the end of a noble street ; but this improvement 
is rather to be wished than expected. The ground on which 
the Mansion- House is erected abounding very much with springs, 
made it necessary to pile the foundations, and the damp has 
occasioned the dry rot, which at one period was a subject of 
considerable alarm. It is very substantially built of Portland 
stone, and has a portico of six lofty fluted columns of the 
Corinthian order in front, the same order being continued in 
pilasters both under the pediment and on each side. A hand- 
some flight of steps, of considerable extent, leads up to the 



portico ; the balustrade of the stairs is continued along the front, 
and the columns support a large angular pediment, ornamented 
with a noble piece of sculpture in bass-relief, representing the 
dignity and opulence of the city of London. The whole expence 
of this building, including a sum of 39OO/. paid for the purchase 
of houses to be pulled down, amounted to 42,6$SS. i8s. Sal. 


A the close of our short epitome of the legal history of this 
country, which we took occasion to introduce under the 
article "House of Commons" we promised to resume the 
subject when the present article presented itself in the order of 
publication. We had indeed omitted to enumerate the many 
beneficial laws which passed in the reign of Charles II. and the 
great strides which our constitution at that period made towards 
perfection. It was in this reign the doctrine and consequences 
of military tenures were abolished, and all their oppressive 
appendages removed from incumbering the estates of the subject ; 
at the same time, the prerogatives of purveyance and pre- 
emption, and the writ de hceretico comburendo, were abolished. 
In this reign, too, were passed, the statute for holding annual 
Parliaments, the test and corporation acts, the statute of frauds 
and perjuries, the statute for distribution of intestates' estates, 
that of amendments and jeofails, and many wise and important 
acts for the improvement and protection of navigation and 
commerce. At this period the people seem not only to have 


enjoyed a considerable portion of real liberty, but to have 
possessed the means of protecting that liberty against the en- 
croachments of prerogative. These circumstances enabled them, 
in the succeeding reign, to resist (as we have already shewn) the 
designs of James II. and to place the Prince of Orange upon the 
throne of these kingdoms. From this time the constitution has 
rather been rendered firm and stable by the confirmation of its 
principles, than amended by alterations. The bill of rights, the 
act of toleration, the act of settlement, and the conditions which 
were annexed to it, the union of England and Scotland ; those 
acts by which the dispensing power of the crown is pronounced 
illegal, by which the septennial election of members of Parliament 
is established, by which certain officers are excluded the House 
of Commons or voting for members, which restrain the king's 
pardon from obstructing impeachments, which have imparted to 
all the lords an equal right to try their fellow peers, which 
regulate trials for high treason, which set some bounds to the 
civil list, by placing the administration of this revenue in the 
hands of persons accountable to Parliament ; which have made 
the judges completely independent of the king, his ministers, and 
his successors; the union with Ireland: all these are proofs that 
the constitution of this country has nearly attained the height 
of human perfection, and that the utmost stretch of political 
speculation cannot justify a craving for more substantial benefits 
in a state of society. 

But if to this catalogue we add the improvements which 
have taken place in the administration of the laws, and in the 
ameliorated state of public and private life, we shall be rather 
inclined to pity those who lose the opportunity of enjoying the 


practical benefits of such a condition, in vain and fruitless 
endeavours after theoretical perfection. It is since the period 
of the revolution in 1688, that the solemn recognition of the law 
of nations with respect to the rights of ambassadors, has been 
made, and a number of excrescences, that in process of time had 
sprung out of the practical part of the law, have been cut off: 
to which may be added, the protection of corporate rights by 
the improvement of writs of mandamus, and informations in 
nature of quo warranto ; the regulations of trial by jury, and 
the act by which they are enabled to determine upon both law 
and fact ; the admitting witnesses for prisoners upon oath ; the 
farther restraints upon alienations of lands in mortmain ; the 
extension of the benefit of clergy, by abolishing the pedantic 
criterion of reading ; the new and effectual methods for the 
speedy recovery of rents ; the improvements which have been 
made in ejectments for the trying of titles ; the introduction and 
establishment of paper credit, by indorsements upon bills and 
notes, which have shewn the possibility, so long doubted, of 
assigning a chose in action ; the translation of all legal pro- 
ceedings into the English language ; the erection of courts of 
conscience for recovering small debts, and the reformation of 
county courts ; the great system of marine jurisprudence, of 
which the foundations have been laid, by clearly developing the 
principles on which policies of insurance are founded, and by 
happily applying those principles to particular cases; the ameliora- 
tion and improvement of the laws relating to bankrupts, and 
which extend the sum for which a debtor may be arrested and 
held to bail ; and, lastly, the liberality of sentiment which has 
taken possession of our courts of common law, and induced 


them to adopt (where facts can be clearly ascertained) the same 
principles of redress as prevail in our courts of equity, and by 
extending the remedial influence of the equitable writ of trespass 
on the case, according to its primitive institution by King 
Edward I. to almost every instance of injustice not remedied 
by any other process. This catalogue of improvements may- 
be closed with the noblest palladium of our liberties, and the 
best assurance for their continuance, the freedom of the press, 
which is enjoyed and protected in this country as far as is 
consistent with the peace and wellbeing of society, and to an 
extent unknown in any other. 

The House of Lords forms a constituent part of the constitu- 
tion. It consists, first, of all the peers of the realm, by whatever 
title of nobility they may be distinguished, and from whatever 
source their dignity is derived, whether by descent, creation, or 
election (as since the unions with Scotland and Ireland) : the 
number of these is indefinite. To them are joined the spiritual 
lords, consisting of two archbishops and twenty-four bishops ; 
and at the dissolution of monasteries by Henry VIII. consisted 
likewise of twenty-six mitred abbots and two priors, a very 
considerable body, and in those times equal in number to the 
temporal nobility. But although, in the eye of the law, the 
lords spiritual are distinct from the lords temporal, and are so 
distinguished in most of our acts of Parliament, yet in practice 
they are usually blended together under the name of the Lords ; 
they intermix in their votes, and the majority of lords so inter- 
mixed effectually determines every question proposed. It is 
among the privileges of the House of Lords, to be attended by 
the judges of the Court of King's Bench and Common Pleas, 


and such of the barons of the Exchequer as are of the degree 
of the coif, or have been made Serjeants at law ; as likewise by 
the king's learned counsel, being serjeants, and by the masters 
of the Court of Chancery, for their advice in point of law, and 
for the greater dignity of their proceedings. The secretaries 
of state, with the attorney and solicitor general, were also used 
to attend the House of Peers, and have to this day their regular 
summons issued out at the beginning of every sessions, ad 
tractandiim et consilium impendendum, though not ad con- 
sentiendum ; but whenever of late years they have been 
members of the House of Commons, their attendance here 
hath fallen into disuse. 

A distinction of rank and honours belongs to every well- 
governed state, and is more particularly necessary in a limited 
and free monarchy. It is the cheap remuneration of merit, and 
the appropriate reward of eminent services performed by great 
men ; it is the noble mind's distinguishing allurement. In our 
mixed government, a class of nobility is an essential ingredient. 
It forms a barrier between the encroachments of prerogative and 
the vacillations of democracy. The nobility are the pillars reared 
from among the people, to support the dignity of the monarch, 
and to preserve that scale which rises in gradual progression 
from the cottage to the throne. It is this beautiful and contrast- 
ing proportion which gives stability to our constitution, and has 
made it the object of envy and admiration to surrounding nations. 
We cannot close this short epitome without saying a few words 
upon the sovereign power, although it does not immediately 
belong to this particular article, but as no other opportunity may 
offer in the subsequent divisions of this work, we shall embrace 
the present. 


If any thing can add to our respect for an office so important 
and essential to the existence of our constitution, it would be 
derived from the example of private virtue and public firmness 
which have been exhibited, during the course of a long and 
portentous period, by our beloved monarch. But happy as we 
may feel ourselves in such an example at this arduous moment, 
our constitution would ill deserve the praises bestowed upon it by 
the wisest men of this and of every other country in Europe, if 
it depended rather upon the uncommon virtues of the prince, 
which an hereditary monarchy must render precarious, than upon 
attributes which are essential to the sovereign. It is in that 
political perfection which this constitution has attributed to the 
sacred office of a British sovereign, that consists the shining part 
of the most admirable form of government that ever was con- 
ceived by the mind of any legislator. It is a false and foolish 
notion, that the king is the servant of the public. He is the 
soul of the constitution, that which frees it from the tyranny of 
aristocracy, and the anarchy of democracy. The servants of the 
public are the ministers who surround him, through whom every 
act that is done must pass, who alone are responsible, amenable, 
and punishable. Nothing can pass from the sovereign to the 
subject but through the medium of accountable servants ; and 
thus the essence of the constitution is never in danger, unless the 
madness or the folly of the people occasion it to be so. Contempt 
or aversion may indeed be nationally and universally felt towards 
one minister, and his successor may fully restore the dignity of 
the office, because it is dependent upon the conduct of the 
individual who fills it ; but if the crown becomes contemptible 
in the eyes of the people, if the fine veil which the constitution 
has so wisely thrown round the person of the king, be rudely or 


wantonly torn away, then all the attributes of sovereignty sink for 
ever. That the king can do no wrong, that the king never dies, 
that the throne is never vacant, are ideas so interwoven with our 
earliest political feelings and prejudices, as to have become 
necessary to the existence of that constitution and of that liberty, 
which they are so admirably and wonderfully calculated to support 
and preserve. Indeed, the difficulty felt at the Revolution, by 
the greatest men of that age, in making the word abdication 
consistent with the sense of the constitution, plainly shewed their 
knowledge of the great importance of the kingly office, for the 
preservation of those liberties which they were met to establish. 

To conclude, in the words of Sir W. Blackstone, " Herein 
consists the true excellence of the English constitution, that all 
the parts of it form a mutual check upon each other. Every 
branch of our civil polity supports and is supported, regulates and 
is regulated, by the rest : for the two houses naturally drawing in 
two directions of opposite interest, and the prerogative in another 
still different from them both, they mutually keep each other from 
exceeding their proper limits ; while the whole is prevented from 
separation, and artificially connected together by the mixed nature 
of the crown, which is a part of the legislature and the sole 
executive magistrate. Like three distinct powers in mechanics, 
they jointly impel the machine of government in a direction 
different from what either acting by itself would have done, but 
at the same time in a direction partaking of each and formed out 
of all, a direction which constitutes the true line of the liberty 
and happiness of the community." 

The building which is the present House of Lords was formerly 
the Court of Requests, and was fitted up for the present purpose 
upon the union of Great Britain with Ireland. The tapestry of 


the old House of Lords is used to decorate the present, and is 
set off with large frames of brown stained wood, which divide it 
into separate compartments. The north end of the court is 
converted into a lobby, by which the members of the House of 
Commons pass to the Upper House. The old canopy of state is 
placed at the upper end of the room, with the addition of the 
arms of the united kingdom, painted upon silk. On the right 
hand of the throne is a seat for the Prince of Wales, on the left 
is another for the next person of the royal family, and behind the 
throne are places for the young peers who have no votes in the 
house. When the king is present with the crown on his head, 
the lords sit uncovered, and the judges stand till his majesty gives 
them leave to sit. In the king's absence, the lords at their 
entrance do reverence to the throne. The lords give their votes 
either by proxy or by voting, in which latter case they begin with 
the puisne baron, and proceed in a regular series, every one 
answering content or not content. If the affirmatives and negatives 
are equal, it passes in the negative, the speaker not being allowed 
a voice, unless he be a peer of the realm. Each peer has a right 
to enter his protest, or the reasons of his dissent, if any vote 
passes the house contrary to his sentiments. 

It would far exceed our limits to enter more into detail respect- 
ing the privileges which belong to the House of Lords. 

In the possession of the Earl of Buchan, a few years since, 
was a copy from an ancient limning, formerly in the College of 
Arms, London, representing Edward I. sitting in Parliament. 
On a throne, at the upper end, sits the king, with his name and 
arms over his head. On his right, but on a lower seat, 
Alexander, King of Scots ; and on his left, on a seat of the 
same height with this last, Llewellyn, Prince of Wales ; both 


distinguished, like Edward himself, by their names and coats 
of arms over their heads. Beyond King Alexander, but 
on a lower seat, is placed the Archbishop of Canterbury ; and 
beyond Llewellyn, on a lower seat likewise, the Archbishop of 
York ; both of whom have their coats of arms placed over their 
heads. A woolsack lies cross-wise of the house, and on it, in 
front of the throne, are four persons sitting, evidently the 
chancellor, the two chief justices, and the chief baron of the 
Exchequer ; or, in other words, the four chief judges of the four 
courts of law. Two other woolsacks are placed at right angles 
with the former ; and on each of them sit four persons, no doubt 
intended for the other eight judges. Another woolsack is placed 
cross-wise of the house, and contains four other persons, sitting 
with their faces towards the throne, but uncovered ; and who 
these are it is not easy to say. Behind these persons, and with 
their faces towards the throne, are two persons standing un- 
covered, with something like open papers in their hands, 
apparently clerks : and behind these clerks is a cross bench, on 
which sit seven persons covered, all with their faces towards the 
throne, in gowns or robes ; but the right hand man appears to 
sit higher than the rest, and has on a black gown, and a chain 
round his neck. Each side of the room contains two benches, at 
right angles with the throne : those on the left have two bishops 
and five peers on one seat, and seven peers on the other ; and at 
the upper end of the front bench of these two, and on a separate 
seat which stands forwarder, sits the prince, the son of King 
Edward, afterwards King Edward II. The mitred abbots are 
placed on the other or right side of the house, and on the bench 
nearest the wall ; six of them on that bench, and thirteen more 
on a return which it makes at right angles, so as to come behind 


the above-mentioned bench, containing the seven persons : and 
on a bench on the right hand side of the house, reckoning from 
the throne, and just before the six mitred abbots, sit six bishops. 
Other attendants are also introduced, such as a nobleman un- 
covered, bearing a sword, who stands behind, near Prince 
Edward ; and also an herald uncovered, near this last nobleman. 
Between Alexander, King of Scots, and the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, but farther back than either, and separated from 
the rest of the house by their seats, stands a man in a gown, but 
uncovered, with a roll of parchment in his hand. In a similar 
situation, between Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and the Arch- 
bishop of York, stand two persons, covered it is true, but, 
apparently from their station, no members of the house, because 
they are divided from it by the seat, or covered bench, on one 
end of which that prince sits. 

Excepting in the two instances of the cross benches, one with 
the four, and the other with the seven persons before mentioned, 
there is no difficulty in ascertaining the different ranks of the 
members or persons represented. Who the former might be, 
there is no circumstance to decide ; but there seems some reason 
to think, that the seven persons were the lesser barons, or what 
answered to the present House of Commons ; and that of them, 
the figure in black, with a chain round his neck, was their speaker, 
whose office, at that time, was apparently much the same as that 
of the foreman of a jury in our days, to collect their opinions 
individually, and to declare the result collectively, in the name of 
the whole body. 

From the limning in Lord Buchan's possession, a print is given 
in Pinkerton's Iconographia Scotica, and from an examination of 
that print the above particulars have been obtained. 







THE plate is a representation of Cooper's Hall, at which 
place the Lotteries have been drawn for many years. 
The arguments of the moralist and politician differ very 
widely upon the propriety of making the passion of the multitude 
for gaming subservient to the operations of finance : the subject 
admits of too much latitude upon one side, and may be defended 
with arguments of equal ingenuity, if not of equal importance, 
upon the other, for us to enter upon it within the limits necessarily 
prescribed to this work. 

The first Lottery of which we have any account in these 
kingdoms, was drawn in the year 1569; it consisted of 40,000 
lots, at ten shillings each : the prizes were pieces of plate ; and 
the profits arising from it, were to go towards repairing the 
havens of this kingdom. It was drawn at the west door of 
St. Paul's cathedral, and began on the nth January, 1569, and 
continued drawing, without intermission, day and night, until the 
6th May following. Maitland, vol. I. p. 257. 

At this period there were only three lottery-offices in London. 
The proposals for this Lottery were published in the years 1 567 
and 1568: it was at first intended to have been drawn at the 
house of Mr. Derricke, her majesty's jeweller, but was afterwards 
drawn at St. Paul's. Dr. Rawlinson, in the year 1 748, shewed to 
the Antiquarian Society, "A proposal for a very rich Lottery, 
general, without any blankes, contayning a great number of good 



prizes, as well of redy money as of plate, and certain sorts of 
merchandizes, having been valued and prised by the command- 
ment of the queene's most excellent majestie's order, to the 
entent that such commodities as may chance to arise thereof 
after the charges borne, may be converted towards the reperations 
of the havens and strength of the realme, and towards such other 
public good workes. The number of lotts shall be foure hundred 
thousand, and no more ; and every lot shall be the summe of 
tenne shillings sterling only, and no more : to be filled by the 
feast of St. Bartholomew. The shew of prises are to be seen 
in Cheapside, at the sign of the Queene's Arms, the house of 
Mr. Derricke, goldsmith, servant to the queene." Some other 
orders about it in 1567-8, printed by Hen. Bynneman. In the 
year 1612, King James, in especial favour for the present planta- 
tion of English colonies in Virginia, granted a Lottery to be held 
at the west end of St. Paul's, whereof one Thomas Sharplys, a 
tailor, of London, had the chief prize, which was 4000 crowns in 
fair plate. Baker's Chronicle. See an account of the prizes, &c. 
of this Lottery, in Smith's History of Virginia. In the year 
1630, a project was set on foot for the conveying water into 
London and Westminster, from within a mile and a half of 
Hodsdon, in Hertfordshire ; for defraying the expences whereof, 
King Charles granted them a special licence to erect and publish 
a Lottery or Lotteries, "according," says this record, "to the 
course of other Lotteries heretofore used and practised ; " which 
is the first mention of Lotteries either in the Fcedera or the 
statute books. In the reign of Queen Anne, it was thought 
necessary to suppress Lotteries as nuisances to the public. 
Statute the loth and nth William III. c. 17. declares ALL 


LOTTERIES public nuisances, and all patents for Lotteries void and 
against law. The State Lotteries are all managed under annual 
acts of Parliament passed for each : a penalty of SOQ/. is also 
imposed on every proprietor of a private Lottery, and 2O/. on 
each adventurer. 

Statute 9th Anne, c. 6. commands justices of peace to assist 
in suppressing private Lotteries. 

Statute loth Anne, c. 26. imposes the like penalty of 5OO/. 
on persons keeping offices for illegal insurances on marriages, 
&c. under various pretexts. 

Statute 5th George I. c. 9. puts the sale of chances on the 
footing of private Lotteries, and imposes a penalty of ioo/. 
(above all other penalties), recoverable by the persons possessed 
of the ticket, the chance of which was sold, and the offender 
may also be committed to the county gaol for a year. 

Statute 8th George I. c. 2. imposes a penalty of 5oo/. on 
persons keeping offices for the disposal of houses, land, 
advowsons, &c. by lottery, and adventurers to forfeit double 
the sum contributed. 

This statute, and those of loth and nth William III. and 
9th Anne, above-mentioned, are explained and rendered more 
effectual by statute i2th George II. c. 28. which imposes io/. 
penalty on justices neglecting their duty under those acts. 

Statutes gth George I. c. 19. and 6th George II. c. 35. impose 
a penalty of 2OO/. and a year's imprisonment on persons selling 
tickets in, or publishing schemes of, any foreign Lottery. 
Ireland is excepted under statute 22d George III. c. 47. 
Statute 29th George II. c. 7. provides that offences against 
the English acts against private Lotteries, though committed 


in Ireland, shall be liable to all the penalties imposed as if they 
were committed in England. 

By statute 2 ad George III. c. 47. all lottery-office-keepers 
must take out a licence from the stamp-office, for which they pay 
5O/. Offices to be open only from eight in the morning to eight 
in the evening (except the Saturday evening preceding the 
drawing). The sale of chances (and shares of tickets not their 
own), prohibited under 5O/. penalty. Shares to be stamped. 

By statute 27th George III. c. i. all unlicensed lottery-office- 
keepers, and all persons, directly or indirectly, as principals or 
servants, selling chances, or insuring or causing any person to 
insure for or against the drawing of any ticket in any State 
Lottery, shall be deemed rogues and vagabonds, within the strict 
letter of statute i7th George II. c. 5. and other statutes relating 
to vagabonds. 


THE Magdalen House, for the reception of penitent female 
prostitutes, is situated on the east side of the road leading 
from Blackfriars-bridge to the obelisk in St. George's- 
fields : it consists of four brick buildings, which inclose a 
quadrangle, with a basin in the center. The chapel is an 
octangular edifice, erected at one of the back corners ; and to 
give the inclosed court uniformity, a building with a similar front 
is placed at the opposite corner. This benevolent institution was 
projected in the year 1758, by Mr. Robert Dingley : it was at 



first kept in a large house, formerly the London Infirmary, in 
Prescot-street, Goodman's-fields, and was called the Magdalen 
Hospital. The utility of this charity was so conspicuous, and 
so well supported, that the views of the benefactors extended to 
the building an edifice more enlarged and convenient for the 
purpose : in consequence of which, the spot on which the present 
edifice stands was made choice of; and on the 28th of July, in 
the year 1769, the Earl of Hertford, president, with the vice- 
president and governors, laid the first stone at the altar of the 
chapel, under which was placed a brass plate, with the following 
inscription : 

On the 28th of July, 
In the year of our Lord 


And in the ninth year of the reign of 
his most sacred Majesty 

George III. 

King of Great Britain, 

Patronized by his Royal Consort, 

Queen Charlotte, 

This Hospital, 

For the reception of 

Penitent Prostitutes, 

Supported by voluntary contributions, 

Was began to be erected, 

And the first stone laid by 

Francis, Earl of Hertford, 

Knight of the most noble order of 

the garter, lord chamberlain of 

his majesty's household, and one 

of his most honourable privy council, 

the president. 

Joel Johnson, architect. 


During the period that it has subsisted, more than two-thirds 
of the women who have been admitted, have been reconciled to 
their friends, or placed in honest employments or reputable 
services. Of this number, some undoubtedly have relapsed 
into their former errors ; but many, who left the house at their 
own request, have since behaved well ; and several of those 
discharged for improper behaviour, have, to the certain know- 
ledge of the committee, never returned to evil courses. A very 
considerable number are since married, and are at this moment 
respectable members of society. Could their names and situa- 
tions be disclosed (which, for the most obvious reasons, would 
be highly improper), the very great utility of this charity would 
appear in the strongest light. 

A probationary ward has been instituted for the young women 
on their first admission ; a separation of those of different 
descriptions and qualifications has been established ; and apart- 
ments have been fitted up in the lodge of the Hospital for the 
residence of the chaplain, that he may with the greater facility 
devote his attention to the instruction of the women in the most 
satisfactory manner. 

Each class is entrusted to its particular assistant, and the whole 
is under the inspection of the matron. This separation (useful 
on many accounts) is peculiarly so to a numerous class of women, 
who are much to be pitied, and to whom this charity has been 
very beneficial, viz. young women who have been seduced from 
their friends under promises of marriage, and have been deserted 
by their seducers : they have never been in public prostitution, 
but fly to the Magdalen to avoid it : their relations, in the first 
moments of resentment, refuse to receive, protect, or acknowledge 


them ; they are abandoned by the world, without character, 
without friends, without money, without resource, and wretched 
indeed is their situation ! To such especially, this house of 
refuge opens wide its doors ; and instead of being driven by 
despair to lay violent hands on themselves, and to superadd the 
crime of self-murder to that guilt which is the cause of their 
distress, or of being forced, by the strong calls of hunger, into 
prostitution, they find a safe and quiet retreat in this abode of 
peace and reflection. To rescue from the threatening horrors of 
prostitution such victims of the base and ungenerous, whose ruin 
has frequently been more owing to their unsuspecting innocence, 
than to any other cause ; to restore them to virtue and industry, 
after one false step, and to reconcile their friends, are considera- 
tions of the greatest magnitude. The committee generally give 
such young women the preference, because they are almost 
certain of the best consequences ; for it scarcely ever happens 
but their relations relent, when, by taking shelter in this house, 
they have given so strong a proof of their determination to quit 
a vicious way of life. The method of proceeding for the 
admission of women into this Hospital is as follows : The first 
Thursday in every month is an admission-day, when sometimes 
from twenty to thirty petitioners appear, who, without any 
recommendation whatever, on applying at the door to the clerk, 
receive a printed form of petition, gratis, which is properly filled 
up : each petition is numbered, and a corresponding number is 
given to the petitioner herself. They are called in singly before 
the board, and such questions are put to them as may enable the 
committee to judge of the sincerity of their professions, and to 
ascertain the truth of their assertions. If a parent, relation, or 
friend, has accompanied them (which, though not necessary, is 


very desirable, and is very frequently the case), these are also 
called in separately, and examined, with a view to confirm and 
strengthen, if true, or to disprove, if false, the account given by 
the women themselves. The committee take particular pains to 
select for admission the most deserving, as it often happens that 
there are but few vacancies : in the next place, they endeavour, 
to the utmost of their ability, to assist such other petitioners as 
appear thoroughly resolved to mend their lives. Many are 
reconciled to their friends, by the interposition of the committee, 
even without being admitted into the house ; and others are 
supported until a vacancy takes place, that they may not be 
compelled by want to return to their evil ways. 

The treatment of the women is of the gentlest kind : they 
are instructed in the principles of religion, in reading, and in 
several kinds of work, and the various branches of household 
employment, to qualify them for service or other situations, 
wherein they may honestly earn their bread. The chaplain 
attends to them daily, to promote and encourage their good 
resolutions, and to exhort them to religion and virtue. The 
sacrament is administered on the great festivals, and at other 
stated times, when many of the young women who have been 
some time in the house, and who, after having themselves 
expressed their wish to be instructed in this duty, have been 
considered by the chaplain as sufficiently informed and prepared 
for it, receive it with the most serious attention. 

The time they remain in the house varies according to 
circumstances. The greatest pains are taken to find out their 
relations and friends, to bring about a reconciliation with them ; 
and if they be people of character, to put them under their 
protection : if, however, the young women are destitute of such 


friends, they are retained in the house till an opportunity offers 
of placing them in a respectable service, or of procuring them 
the means of obtaining an honest livelihood. No young woman, 
who has behaved well during her stay in the house, is discharged 
unprovided for. 

Four general courts are holden in every year, viz. on the last 
Wednesday in January, April, July, and October, when every 
governor may be present. 

At the general court in April, the committee and all officers, 
except the president, are elected. 

The committee, consisting of thirty-two governors, meet at 
the Hospital every Thursday, at twelve o'clock precisely, except 
on the first Thursday of every month, when they meet at eleven. 

A subscription of twenty guineas, or more, at one time, or of 
five guineas per annum for five successive years, is a qualification 
for a governor for life; and an annual subscription of five guineas 
for a governor for one year : but smaller subscriptions or 
donations are thankfully received. 

It is impossible to contemplate the wretched situation of those 
miserable females who support themselves by prostitution, with- 
out reverting to the causes which have placed many of them in 
that dreadful predicament : the tear of pity and the consolations 
of religion, are due to these objects more frequently than the 
fastidious virtue of their own sex is willing to bestow them. 
Seduced from a state of virtue, they are no longer the comfort 
of affectionate parents ; born and educated for brighter scenes, 
till, deceived by falsehood and villany, they see their error when 
too late to recede : abandoned by their former friends and 
protectors, they are thrown upon the world ; deserted too by 
their seducers, pointed at by the finger of scorn, and driven from 


the society of virtue and innocence, they are obliged to herd with 
the profligate, the brutal, and the licentious. If there is a note 
of pity in the human heart, surely it must vibrate with every 
feeling that leads to the rescue of such objects from a life of 
ignominy and shame ; and we hail, with no common degree of 
satisfaction, an institution calculated to restore the miserable 
victims of seduction to a life of virtue and industrious comfort. 


IN the earliest period of our history, so late indeed as the 
Norman conquest, the coinage of money was entrusted 
to the superintendence of the clergy, and mints were 
established in certain monasteries, under the natural presumption, 
that such places were best secured from fraud, dishonesty, and 
peculation. Edward I. however, thought it would secure it more 
from these inconveniences if the coinage were executed at the 
Tower ; and he accordingly ordered a mint to be erected there, 
of thirty furnaces. At a subsequent period, however, he per- 
mitted mints to be established in many other parts of the 
kingdom, such as Canterbury, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Bristol, &c. 
&c. From this period the privilege of coining was frequently 
sold to some nobleman, bishop, or corporation, as the pleasure 
or necessities of the prince inclined or compelled him to grant it. 
The result of this conduct very naturally produced incon- 
veniencies to the public, which continued till the early part of 



Queen Elizabeth's reign, who endeavoured to rectify them by 
confining the mint to the Tower. 

The Tower of London has ever since been appropriated for 
that purpose, except during the civil wars, when Charles I. 
erected mints at Oxford, York, and Newark ; and afterwards 
during the reign of William III. who having called in all the 
base and dipt money, was (for the sake of expedition) obliged 
to erect mints at Bristol, Exeter, York, and Winchester. 

The annexed plate is a very animated representation of the 
last of many operations necessary to manufacture coin from the 
metal, namely the stamping or putting the impression. 

It would far exceed the limits of this publication, either to 
exhibit the history of money from the earlier ages, when gold 
and silver were exchanged by weight, without stamp or im- 
pression, for an equivalent in cattle, corn, and other necessaries ; 
or the no less interesting account of the impressions which were 
first employed to denote the weight and value of coin, to dis- 
tinguish the currency of different nations, to perpetuate the 
names of the monarchs by whom they were governed, or the 
aeras of their respective reigns. The coining of money has ever 
been ranked among the most unquestionable and important of 
royal prerogatives, and of which every monarch has been most 
jealous. Although the coin of all the world has been greatly 
diminished from its original value, sometimes from mistaken 
policy, and at others from the necessities and avarice of 
monarchs, yet the currency of these realms has supported an 
uniform superiority over that of other nations ; and the anxiety 
which has been shewn at different periods, to restore the standard 
of our coin, whenever it has been necessary, forms a brilliant 
point in the reigns of some of our best monarchs. 


The charter of our Mint was granted in the reign of Edward I. 
and has been confirmed by subsequent sovereigns. The officers 
of the Mint are the warden, master, comptroller, and their clerks, 
together with an officer called king's clerk ; two assay-masters, 
the one denominated king's assayer, and the other master's 
assayer ; three engravers, a weigher, and teller ; and the company 
of moneyers, &c. All these act, in their respective capacities, 
as check officers and manufacturers of the coin ; and the business 
of this very important office has been carried on with such 
continued exactness, fidelity, and integrity, that no error in the 
fineness or weight of the currency has occurred (as appears upon 
the records of the various trials of the coin, which have from 
time to time taken place), for many ages. 

A short account of the manner of making money, may be 
amusing to our readers. Originally, the impression was given 
upon the pieces by the stroke of a hammer upon a punch bearing 
the impression of what was to be struck upon the coin : this was 
called hammered money. This tedious and incorrect mode of 
coining, was, in 1663, superseded by the method now used, 
called mill and screw ; and the money thus coined is called milled 
money, of which the following is a concise description : The 
gold, or silver, is first melted into bars, of a width and length 
suitable to the coin to be manufactured ; these bars, after being 
assayed by the king's assayer, and found to be standard as to 
fineness, are passed between two cylinders, to reduce them as 
thin as may be necessary ; the circular pieces for coin are then 
cut out by an engine, and after undergoing various other pro- 
cesses, to adjust, soften, clean them, &c. the pieces are lastly 
brought into the press-room (of which the plate is an exact 
representation), where they are placed between two dies, the one 


having the effigy of his majesty, and the other the arms of the 
united kingdom ; and by means of a lever loaded with lead at 
each end, fixed to a strong screw center, and forced down by 
the strength of four men, the impression is marked upon each 
side of the coin at one blow ; and this is so expeditiously done, 
that sixty, seventy, or eighty pieces can be struck in one minute. 
The plate represents various presses, together with the attitudes 
of the men, as well of those who pull the lever, as of the person 
in the action of putting the pieces between the dies, to receive 
the impression. After the money is thus coined, it is again 
assayed and weighed by the check officers, and delivered to the 
owners of the bullion. 

A new Mint is now erecting on the spot where the Victualling- 
office formerly stood, upon Little Tower-hill : the scale of it is 
magnificent ; and when we state that the buildings are under the 
direction of one of the most eminent of our architects, Robert 
Smirke, jun. Esq. ; and the machinery and steam-engines, by 
which the operative parts are to be performed, under that of 
John Rennie, Esq. engineer, and Messrs. Boulton and Co. 
assisted by the practical knowledge of the officers of his 
majesty's Mint, the public may expect, in a short time, that this 
country will possess a Mint unrivalled in point of elegance, utility, 
and perfection, and upon a scale equal to any coinages that a 
great, wealthy, and commercial nation may require : this per- 
fection in workmanship, added to the uniform and unrivalled 
integrity as to fineness and weight, for which the coin of these 
realms has ever been distinguished, will render the royal Mint 
of the united kingdom the most^perfect establishment of its kind 
in the world. 



THE noble edifice of the Horse Guards stands upon part 
of the site of the vast palace of Whitehall, occupying 
that spot which was formerly the Tilt-yard ; a place 
set apart by Henry VIII. and afterwards by Elizabeth, for 
military exercises. 

A building appropriated to the same purposes was in existence 
during the reign of Charles II. who, soon after his restoration, 
raised a body of men that was stationed here, and on whom the 
appellation of Horse Guards was conferred. The building has 
rather the appearance of strength than elegance, and has been 
found fault with for the too great uniformity of its parts. In the 
center is an arched way into St. James's Park, the building over 
which has a pediment, with the king's arms in bass-relief; but 
this being the passage by which his majesty passes to and from 
the House of Peers, it should certainly have been constructed in 
a more noble and lofty style : the wings are plain, and have each 
of them a projecting front, with ornamented windows on the 
principal story, and a plain one in the side. The building is said 
to have cost more than 3o,ooo/. That part of St. James's Park 
immediately behind the building, is the parade, and is so called 
from being the place where the reliefs for the different guards 
about the palace are every morning paraded and inspected, a 


representation of which is given in the plate. In the reign of 
James II. when it was customary to mount guard at St. James's 
and Whitehall, a most ungracious message was sent by that 
monarch to the Prince of Orange, inviting him to take his 
lodgings at the latter : the prince accepted the invitation, but 
hinted that the king must previously quit. The old hero, Lord 
Craven, was on duty at the time when the Dutch guards were 
marching through the park to relieve, by order of their master. 
From a point of honour, Lord Craven had determined not to 
quit his post, and was preparing to maintain it ; but receiving 
the command of his sovereign at this instant, he reluctantly 
withdrew his men, and marched away with silent dignity. 
Antiquarians inform us, that in Henry VIII.'s time the park 
was a wild, wet field ; but when that prince built St. James's 
Palace, he inclosed this field, laid it out in walks, collected the 
waters, and gave to the new-inclosed ground and the palace, 
the name of St. James. It was very much improved by Charles 
II. who added to it several fields, planted it with rows of lime 
trees, laid out the Mall (which is a vista nearly half a mile in 
length), and formed the canal, which is 100 feet broad and 2,800 
feet long. Succeeding kings allowed to the people the privilege 
of walking in it; and King William III. in 1699, granted the 
neighbouring inhabitants a passage into it from Spring-gardens. 
The building of the Horse Guards began in the year 1751, 
and was very expeditiously completed. It is certainly a neat 
and compact piece of architecture, and appears to the greatest 
advantage when viewed at a distance, from the park. It contains 
a variety of offices necessary for the transaction of business 
relating to the army ; all of them very convenient, and many of 
them extremely elegant. 



IT is the opinion of our best antiquarians, that Newgate 
obtained its name from being erected several hundred years 
after the four original gates of the city. It was built in the 
reign of Henry I. Others, who maintain a contrary opinion, 
assert that it was only repaired at this period, and that it was 
anciently denominated Chamberlain-gate. It appears, from 
ancient records, that it was called Newgate, and was a common 
gaol for felons taken in the city of London, or the county of 
Middlesex, as early as the year 1218; and that, so late as the 
year 1457, Newgate, and not the Tower, was the prison for the 
nobility and great officers of state. 

In the year 1780, Newgate was almost burnt down by the 
rioters, and the felons confined in the strongest cells were re- 
leased : such was the violence of the fire, that the great iron bars 
of the windows were burnt through, and the adjacent stones 
vitrified. This circumstance afforded the opportunity of carrying 
into effect a plan which had been long projected, of separating 
the felons from the debtors. Mr. Howard, in his State of 
Prisons, 410 ed. 213, seems to think, that notwithstanding some 
of the defects of the old prison are removed, yet the present one 
is by no means free from errors ; and that, without great care, the 
prisoners are yet liable to the fatal fever which is the result of 
one of these errors. The exterior presents a uniform front to 
the west, of rustic work, and consists of two wings, the keeper's 


house forming the center. The north side is appropriated to 
debtors, men and women : the men's court is forty-nine feet six 
inches by thirty-one feet six inches ; the women's about the same 
length, but not more than half the width. These courts are 
surrounded by wards, rising three stories above the pavement : 
the men's rooms are about twenty-three feet by fifteen feet, and 
are usually occupied by from fifteen to twenty persons : the 
debtors' side has generally about 250 inhabitants. The allowance 
to debtors is ten ounces of bread and one pound and a half of 
potatoes per day : the debtors in the poor and women's sides 
have an allowance of eight stone of beef weekly sent them by 
the sheriffs. The south side is appropriated to felons and persons 
confined for offences against government. 

The plate represents the chapel of the prison during divine 
service on the Sunday preceding the execution of criminals. 
Upon this occasion, a suitable sermon, called the condemned 
sermon, is preached by the ordinary ; during which a coffin is 
placed on a table within an inclosure, called the Dock ; and round 
this coffin are prisoners condemned to die. 

The mode of executing criminals at Tyburn had long been 
complained of, as tending rather to introduce depravity, by a 
want of solemnity, than to operate as a preventive to crimes, by 
exhibiting an awful example of punishment. To remedy this 
evil, both the place and manner of execution were changed : a 
temporary scaffold was constructed, to be placed in the open 
space before the debtors' door of Newgate, having a movable 
platform for the criminals to stand on, which, by means of a 
lever and rollers, falls from under them. The whole of this 
building is hung with black ; and the regulations which are 
observed on these mournful occasions, are calculated to produce 

n. P 


that impression on the minds of the spectators which is the true 
end of all punishments. 

A solemn exhortation was formerly given to the prisoners 
appointed to die at Tyburn, on their way from Newgate. Mr. 
Robert Dow, merchant tailor, who died in 1612, left 265. 8d. 
yearly, for ever, that the bellman should deliver from the wall to 
the unhappy criminals, as they went by in the cart, a most pious 
and awful admonition, and also another in the prison of Newgate 
on the night before they suffered. They were as follow : 

Admonition to the prisoners in Newgate on the night before 


You prisoners that are within, 
Who, for wickedness and sin, 

After many mercies shewn you, are now appointed to die to- 
morrow in the forenoon, give ear, and understand, that to-morrow 
morning the greatest bell of St. Sepulchre's shall toll for you, in 
form and manner of a passing bell, as used to be tolled for those 
who are at the point of death, to the end that all godly people 
hearing that bell, and knowing it is for your going to your deaths, 
may be stirred up heartily to pray to God to bestow his grace and 
mercy upon you whilst you live. I beseech you, for Jesus 
Christ's sake, to keep this night in watching and prayer, to the 
salvation of your own souls, while there is yet time and place for 
mercy, as knowing to-morrow you must appear before the 
judgment-seat of your Creator, there to give an account of all 
things done in this life, and to suffer eternal torments for your 
sin committed against him, unless, upon your hearty and un- 
feigned repentance, you find mercy through the merits, death, 
and passion of our only mediator and advocate, Jesus Christ, 


who now sits at the right hand of God to make intercession 
for as many of you as penitently return to him. 

Admonition to the condemned criminals as they are passing by 

St. Sepulchres church wall to execution. 

All good people, pray heartily to God for these poor sinners, 
who are now going to their death, for whom this great bell doth 
toll. You that are condemned to die, repent with lamentable 
tears ; ask mercy of the Lord for the salvation of your own 
souls, through the merits, death, and passion of Jesus Christ, 
who now sits at the right hand of God to make intercession for 
as many of you as penitently return unto him. 

Lord have mercy upon you, 
Christ have mercy upon you, 
Lord have mercy upon you, 
Christ have mercy upon you. 


MANY of our antiquarians are of opinion that the term 
Old Bailey is a corruption of Bale-hill, an eminence 
on which stood the Bale, or bailiffs house, wherein 
was formerly held a court for the trial of malefactors ; and this 
opinion seems to be confirmed by such a court having been kept 
here for many centuries, in which there is a place of security 
where the sheriffs keep their prisoners during the session, which 
still retains the name of the Bale-dock. 

Contiguous to Newgate is Justice Hall, commonly called the 
Sessions-House : it was formerly a plain brick building, but is 
now rebuilt entirely of stone, and is brought much forwarder than 
the old one, and is parallel with the street. There is a flight of 


steps which leads to a gallery on each side of the court, for the 
accommodation of spectators. It is a very elegant and com- 
modious room. The entrance into the area is narrow, to prevent 
the sudden irruption of the mob : above it is a figure of Justice. 
Every precaution has been taken to render it airy, and to prevent 
the effect of the effluvia arising from that dreadful disorder, the 
gaol fever. 

The havoc it made in May 1750, was a melancholy admonition 
to those interested in every court of justice. The prisoners are 
brought to this court from Newgate by a passage that closely 
connects the two buildings ; and there is a convenient place under 
the Sessions-House, in front, for detaining the prisoners till they 
are called upon their trials : there are also rooms for the grand 
and petty juries, with other accommodations. 

A court is held eight times in the year, by a commission of 
Oyer and Terminer, for the trial of prisoners for crimes com- 
mitted within the city of London and county of Middlesex : the 
judges are, the lord mayor, the aldermen who have passed the 
chair, and the recorder, who, on such occasions, are attended by 
both the sheriffs, and by one or more of the judges. The 
offences committed in the city are tried by a jury of citizens ; 
and those committed in the county, by a jury of housekeepers 
in the county. The crimes tried in this court are high and petty 
treason, murder, felony, forgery, petty larceny, burglary, &c. 

At the back of the Sessions- House is a convenient passage, 
covered over, for the judge and counsellors that attend the court. 

The plate represents the court employed in the examination of 
a witness, who appears to have just received the usual admonition 
upon these occasions, of "Hold up your head, young woman, and 
look at his lordship." 

r-" 1 

2I 3 


THE Opera- House is a noble pile of building, situated 
near the bottom of the Haymarket, on the west side. 
It was originally built by Sir John Vanburgh, during the 
years 1704-5, and was first opened in the month of April 1705, 
for the performance of Italian operas, under the title of the 
Queen's Theatre. The precarious encouragement which was 
afforded to musical spectacles of a nature entirely novel, by the 
attendance of the public, rendered it necessary, a few years 
afterwards, to raise a fund for the more permanent establishment 
of the Italian opera in this kingdom. In consequence of a 
determination to this effect, the sum of 5O,ooo/. was raised by 
subscription in the year 1720, towards which his Majesty 
George I. subscribed iooo/. 

The plan was well conceived and digested ; the first vocal 
performers were brought from Italy, and the best composers 
from the Continent were encouraged to employ their talents in 
this undertaking. Handel and Bononcini, with many others, 
were by this means introduced to the public. The opera 
flourished for some time, and a taste for classical performances 
was by degrees encouraged and disseminated. The superiority 
of the Italians, both as vocal and instrumental performers, was 
at this period so indisputable, that they were exclusively employed, 
and the riches of the country enabled the directors to procure 
the best performers that the Continent could supply. But music 


seems to be approaching very fast towards the fate that has been 
experienced by most of the arts, which advance by slow degrees 
to a certain point of perfection, which it is equally difficult to 
preserve as to acquire. Modern music was first methodized by 
Guido Aretine, and received but little improvement for many 
centuries afterwards. At the time that Italy produced her best 
painters, some of her best musicians flourished. In England we 
began much later : it was not till the reign of Elizabeth that we 
had any music that could possibly compete with the Italian. 
From this period our advances were again very slow for many 
years, and although Gibbons did something, Purcel was the first 
who improved air, which is the great support of modern music. 
Purcel was a great master, and his genius, though disguised by 
the false ornaments of the age in which he lived, was of the first 
order. He has perhaps laboured too much to imitate the words, 
rather than to express the thought of the sentence ; and his 
frequent repetitions of the same word, and his almost infinite 
divisions, are not to be defended : but when the imitation of his 
defects, rather than his beauties, began to operate upon the 
general taste, Handel most seasonably made his appearance, to 
rescue us from a return to barbarity. He introduced and estab- 
lished a new species : though frequently defective in expression 
and elegance, he certainly brought air to its utmost perfection. 
But notwithstanding the great style in which his performances 
were exhibited a few years since, it is certain that we are getting 
very fast into as frivolous and trifling a taste for music as ever 
existed. Voltaire observes, La musique aujord hui nest phis que 
I' art dexecuter des choses difficiles. It is true Voltaire almost 
assumed a merit from perpetually expressing a contempt as well 
as ignorance of music ; but there is much truth in the observation : 


for the art of playing upon musical instruments is degenerating 
very fast into the art of playing tricks upon them. In order to 
bend what is crooked so as to make it strait, we bend it as much 
the other way : and if it should fortunately become fashionable 
to retreat from ornament in music as much as in drapery, we may 
hope to hear music plain and unadorned, and the air of the 
moderns united with the substantial harmony of our predecessors. 
The English performers have certainly rivalled with great success 
both the Italians and Germans in accuracy and execution ; but, 
with the exception of Mrs. Billington, the vocal performers of 
this country are very inferior to the Italians. 

The scenery of the Opera- House is very good, and does great 
honour to the talents of the artists employed. The stage-room is 
not sufficient for the magnificent ballets which the prevailing 
taste of the day requires. The audience part of the house is 
in a superior taste and style. 


THIS building is situated on the south side of Oxford- 
street. It was opened on the 28th April, 1772, as a 
place of evening entertainment for the nobility and 
gentry. It was a most superb and beautiful structure previous to 
its destruction by fire in the year 1792, and was fitted up in a 
style of great splendour and magnificence. Imagination cannot 
well exceed the elegance and grandeur of the apartments, the 
boldness of the paintings, or the effect produced by the disposition 


of the lights, which were reflected from gilt vases. Below the 
dome were a number of statues, representing most of the heathen 
gods and goddesses supposed to be in the ancient Pantheon at 
Rome, from which it derived its name. To these were added 
three beautiful statues of white porphyry, representing the king, 
and queen, and Britannia. The whole building was composed of 
a suite of fourteen rooms, each affording a striking specimen of 
the splendour and profusion of the times. On the i4th January, 
1792, this beautiful structure was destroyed by a fire, that broke 
out in one of the new buildings, which had been added in order 
to make it large enough for the performance of operas. Before 
any engines reached the spot, the fire had got to such a height, 
that all attempts to save the building were in vain. The flames, 
owing to the scenery, oil, paint, and other combustible matter in 
the house, were tremendous, and so rapid in their progress, that 
not a single article could be saved. Fortunately, the height of 
the walls prevented the conflagration from spreading to the 
adjoining buildings. 

Since the Pantheon was rebuilt, it has been principally used 
for exhibitions, and occasionally for masquerades, of which the 
plate is a very spirited representation. It is composed, as these 
scenes usually are, of a motley crowd of peers and pickpockets, 
honourables and dishonourables, Jew brokers and demireps, 
quidnuncs and quack doctors. These entertainments are said 
not to accord with the English character ; and we should have 
been inclined to impute this want of congeniality to a fund of 
good sense, which renders our countrymen insensible to such 
entertainments, if we were not daily witnesses of their pursuing 
amusements less rational and infinitely more frivolous. 


THE object and design of punishment is, to deter men 
from the commission of crimes by the operation of fear ; 
the object of education is, to prevent the necessity of 
punishment by detaching them from vice by means of the hopes 
and rewards of religion. Whatever may have been the vain 
theories of philosophy, no man can have lived in the world 
without observing, that something more is necessary to enable 
us upon all occasions to act properly, than the mere " beauty of 
virtue." No man can be really insensible to this important truth, 
that there are some occasions in the course of life, where probity 
is not sufficiently strong to resist certain temptations, and wherein 
the mind is debased, unless it is elevated by religious habits, and 
a firm belief of immortality. If this reasoning be true in the 
abstract, how strongly does it apply to a class of objects, who 
had long been the outcasts of society, and the disgrace of the 
nation ; who, inheriting from their parents habits of vice and 
principles of irreligion, were thrown upon the world without 
character, without friends, the miserable objects, not of pity, but 
of contempt and abhorrence. A society formed for the purpose 
of rescuing children of this description from infamy and the 
gallows, by extending to them the benefits of a religious 
education, and affording the opportunity of a decent and proper 


means of gaining their daily bread by honest employment, seems 
at the first blush to be a society of such a description as all ranks, 
from the prince to the peasant, might not only applaud, but 
support ; and it would appear, that the mode in which the society 
pursues the objects for which it was instituted, require only to be 
thoroughly understood by the public, to entitle it to that assistance 
which its meritorious nature entitles it. 

This society was instituted in the year 1788, and incorporated 
in 1806, by the name and style of The President, Vice- President, 
Treasurer, and Members of the Philanthropic Society. 

The object of the society, as stated by themselves, is to give a 
good education, with the means of acquiring an honest livelihood, 
to some, who must otherwise set out in life under circumstances 
of peculiar disadvantage, and who, if not protected and instructed 
by this charity, would probably fall into bad hands, and become 
the wretched pupils of vice and profligacy. 

It is notorious, that among the numbers annually condemned 
in this country to death or transportation, many may be found 
who have been tutored and disciplined from their infancy in 
vicious practices, and who were actually engaged, at a very early 
age, in the commission of crimes. Nor is this matter of surprise: 
children are much fitter instruments for experienced villany to 
work with, than accomplices of riper age ; being in a less degree 
objects of suspicion, they have less vigilance to encounter on the 
part of those who are to be defrauded or attacked : they may be 
employed without being admitted into the secrets of the gang ; 
they can therefore make no material discoveries in the event of 
detection, and in case of success, they will be contented with an 
inconsiderable portion of the plunder. 


The children taken under the care of this society are either the 
offspring of convicted felons, or such as have themselves been 
engaged in criminal practices. The former have probably been 
contaminated by the sentiments and example of the parent before 
his conviction, and are orphans under circumstances which 
operate in general to exclude them from respectable situations : 
they may indeed be sent to the parish workhouse, but there too 
the obloquy of their birth must follow them ; and it is almost of 
course, that they should herd with the idle and the profligate, by 
whom the fate of their parents will be considered a recommenda- 
tion. The children of the second class, viz. those who have 
themselves been criminal, have also strong claims on the com- 
passion of the charitable. It frequently happens, that very 
serious offences are committed at an age which does not allow 
of their being followed by legal punishment. In this situation 
are such children as have been carried before a magistrate for 
theft or fraudulent practices, and have been discharged, not in 
consequence of any doubt respecting their guilt, but either for 
want of complete legal evidence, or the unwillingness of the 
injured party to bring them to trial ; or children who, after being 
tried and convicted, have been recommended to the care of the 
society, as fitter subjects for the discipline of education, than for 
the vengeance of the law. There are some within its walls, upon 
whom (though sentenced to transportation or death) the law must 
have taken its course, if the institution had not, by preparing an 
asylum for the offender when pardoned, afforded to the crown 
an opportunity of exercising mercy, without endangering the 
public safety. 

Objects are admitted by the committee, at its weekly meetings, 


held at twelve o'clock on every Friday, at the St. Paul's coffee- 
house, in St. Paul's churchyard. They are seldom taken younger 
than eight or nine, or older than twelve : no female has of late 
been received beyond that age. All letters, introducing or 
recommending an object, addressed to the committee, or their 
secretary, by subscribers to the charity, or other persons of 
respectability, are duly acknowledged, and the proceedings there- 
on communicated in the answer. No particular introduction or 
interest is necessary to induce the committee to take any case, 
which may be brought before it, into consideration, the want of 
other countenance and protection constituting, from the very 
principles of this institution, a strong claim to its attention ; nor 
can any recommendation be allowed to operate in procuring 
admission, except as far as they contain material information con- 
cerning the case to which they relate : considered in this light, 
the recommendations of judges and magistrates in favour of 
children who have come within their notice as criminals, receive 
particular attention. 

The society has, for the reception of the children taken under 
its care, an house at Bermondsey, called The Reform, and a 
large manufactory in St. George's-fields, for the boys ; and a 
spacious building, adjoining to the manufactory, for the girls. 

All boys admitted on account of their own delinquency, are 
sent in the first instance to the Reform. This very important 
addition to the society's establishment was made in 1802, partly 
in consequence of the inconvenience and impropriety of placing 
such as were criminal amongst those who had not been received 
as guilty of any crime, and partly from the necessity of keeping 
boys of the former description under a stricter superintendence, 


and in more close confinement, than was consistent with the 
regulations of a manufactory. The system in the Reform is 
framed with a view to the amendment of the moral character 
by instruction. 

The sons of convicts, not having themselves been criminal, 
are sent at once to the manufactory, which is very extensive ; 
containing, besides accommodation for lodging one hundred boys, 
workshops for carrying on the following trades, viz. printing, 
copper-plate printing, shoe-making, tailor's work, rope-making, 
and twine-spinning. 

The girls are placed in a building contiguous to the manu- 
factory ; but all intercourse between them and the boys is 
effectually prevented by a wall of considerable height. They 
are in general the offspring of convicts, such only being received, 
in consequence of their own misconduct, as may have been guilty 
of a single act of dishonesty, or have misbehaved at a very early 
age. The girls are brought up for menial servants : they make 
their own clothing, and shirts for the boys, and wash and mend 
for the manufactory ; besides which, their earnings in plain work 
have for the last three years been considerable. When of proper 
age they are placed out, at low wages, in respectable families, and 
receive rewards for good behaviour at the end of the first and 
third years of their service. 

The general management and direction of the society's affairs 
are entrusted to the committee, at whose meetings every member 
of the institution may attend, and give his opinion upon any 
point under consideration, but without voting. The proceedings 
of the committee are, however, subject to the reversion and 
controul of general meetings of the members, which are held on 


the first Friday in March, June, September, and December, and 
oftener if specially summoned. 

In order to give the children in the manufactory and female 
school the advantage of attending the public worship of the 
church without inconvenience, the society has been engaged for 
some years (as has frequently been mentioned in its publications) 
in the erection of a chapel within its own walls. Difficulties 
have been encountered, which could not have been overcome 
without the aid and protection of the legislature. But these 
obstacles being at length surmounted, the chapel was regularly 
opened in the month of November 1806, for the celebration of 
divine worship, according to the rites and ceremonies of the 
church of England, under the authority of the bishop of the . 
diocese, and with the express sanction of Parliament ; a sanction 
granted in consequence of the strong sense entertained by the 
different branches of the legislature, of the public utility of this 
institution, and of its peculiar claims upon that ground to the 
privilege of having a chapel annexed to it, with ministers to 
officiate therein, of its own appointment and nomination. The 
print gives a representation of the interior of the chapel, which, 
from the time of its being opened, has been numerously and 
most respectably attended. 

The claims of a society, which substitutes prevention or re- 
formation for punishment, to the favourable attention of the 
public, require but little proof, in a country in which wealth and 
luxury have produced their usual consequences, the increase of 
crimes ; and in which the severity of the law cuts off annually a 
long list of offenders, without being able to lessen the frequency 
of offence. It is an institution, in the support of which the best 




impulses of the heart will be found to act in concurrence with 
the suggestions of the understanding, and the dictates of the 
soundest policy. The situation of those who, as yet innocent 
of their father's crimes stand as it were upon the threshold of 
vice, without the means of retreat, demands the exertion of 
benevolence with an urgency which it seems difficult to resist. 
The execution of an old offender removes a single criminal from 
society ; the reformation of a young one protects the public, not 
only from the crimes which he would otherwise have committed, 
but from the mischief which might result from all those whom 
his bad example, or pernicious instructions, would have corrupted. 
Nor is this all : execution only removes the criminal ; reformation 
makes him useful to his country. The effect of this institution 
is, to convert persons, who, by their birth, or in their infancy, are 
become outlaws, as it were, and rebels to society, into good 
subjects and industrious members of the community ; an effect 
of which, considered even in a pecuniary point of view, it is not 
easy to compute the advantage. 

The number of children within the society's walls at present 
are, 122 boys (of whom 14 are in the Reform, and 108 in the 
manufactory,) and 49 girls. There are also eight apprentices 
serving masters out of the manufactory, but still under the 
protection of the society. 

The Philanthropic Society is supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, and consists of an unlimited number of members, 
out of whom a president, twelve vice-presidents, a treasurer, 
and a committee of twenty-four persons, are elected for the 
management and direction of the affairs of the institution. The 
general controul of the affairs of the corporation is in the 


members at large, assembled in a general court. A subscription 
of twenty guineas, paid at one time, or within one year, con- 
stitutes a member for life. A subscription of the yearly sum 
of one guinea or more, constitutes the subscriber a member 
during such time as he shall continue to pay the same. Persons 
may also become members by the appointment of a general 

The number of children maintained in the year 1807 was 191, 
including those whose apprenticeships expired and those placed 
out at service ; and the number remaining on the 3 1 st December, 
1807, was 119 boys and 49 girls, in the whole 168; which last 
number was, on the 25th March, 1808, increased by new ad- 
missions to 174. 


_ > auditors. 


His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 


His Grace the Duke of Leeds. Right Hon. Viscount Cremorne. 

Most Noble Marquis of Salisbury. Hon. Philip Pusey. 

Right Hon. Earl of Aylesford. George Hardinge, Esq. 

Right Hon. Earl Spencer. James Sims, M. D. and LL. D. 

Right Hon. Earl Grosvenor. John Harman, Esq. 

Right Hon. Viscount Bulkeley. George Holford, Esq. M. P. 
Edward Gale Boldero, Esq. treasurer. 


James Royer, Esq. Charles Enderby, Esq. 

Rev. William Agutter. Daniel Mildred, Esq. 

Henry Hoare, Esq. Thomas Smith, Esq. 

Thomas Jackson, Esq. Thomas Fynmore, Esq. 



Colonel Sweedland. 
Peter Mortimer, Esq. 
Stephen Gaselee, Esq. 
Colonel Harnage. 
Samuel Bosanquet, Esq. 
James Allen Park, Esq. 
Rev. John Gamble. 
Jeremiah Harman, Esq. 

George Holford, Esq. M. P. 
John Baker, Esq. 

Charles Dodd, Esq. 
John Blades, Esq. 
Benjamin Hutton, Esq. 
Charles Bosanquet, Esq. 
John Baker, Esq. 
Thomas Palmer, Esq. 
John Hosier, Esq. 
David King, Esq. 


Rev. Philip Dodd. 
William Houlston, Esq. 


Colonel Harnage. Charles Bosanquet, Esq. Thomas Jackson, Esq. 
Rev. John Grindley, LL. D. chaplain to the Reform at Bermondsey. 

Rev. Nathaniel Parker Forth, A. B. chaplain to the manufactory in St. George' s- 
fields, reader in the chapel, and secretary. 

Rev. Richard Yates, B. D. and Rev. Isaac Jackman, preachers. 

James Sims, M. D. and LL. D. physician. 

Mr. William Norris, surgeon. Mr. J. H. Hooper, apothecary. 
Mr. J. Durand, superintendent. Mr. T. Russel, steward. 

II. Q 



TH E plate is a representation of the Pillory, as it appears 
at Charing-Cross, a place very frequently chosen for this 
kind of punishment, probably on account of its being so 
public a situation, and having so extensive an area for the 
spectators, who never fail to be drawn together by such an 
exhibition. An offender thus exposed to public view, is after- 
wards considered infamous. The degree of this punishment 
depends very much upon the nature of the crime. There are 
certain offences which are supposed to irritate the feelings of the 
lower class more than others, in which cases the punishment of the 
Pillory becomes very serious. If a sense of ingenuous shame were 
excited by this mode of public exposure, we should recommend 
the extending it to those fashionable crimes which so often fall 
under the cognizance of our courts of justice, and destroy all the 
ties that hold society together ; and we cannot help thinking, that 
the experiment might be tried with success, in order to suppress 
such offences as are ridiculously imputed to an excess of sensibility. 
The word Pillory is derived from the French pilleur, that is, 
depeculator, or pelori, from the Greek Hv\>j, janua, a door, and 
Opaw, video, I see ; because a delinquent in the pillory is seen as it 
were with his head through a door. By the statute of the Pillory, 
5 ist Henry III. chap. 6. it is appointed for bakers, forestallers, and 
those who use false weights, perjury, forgery, &c. 3 INST. 219. 
Lords of leets are to have a pillory and tumbrel, or it will be cause 
of forfeiture of the leet ; and a vill may be bound by prescription 
to provide a pillory, &c. 2 HAWK. P. C. c. n. sec. 5. 

'f 3 




IN the earlier stages of society, and previous to the establish- 
ment of any regular system for the conveyance of important 
intelligence, either of a private or public nature, we have 
reason to suppose that occasional carriers were employed for that 
purpose, as convenience suggested, or as necessity required. It 
is probable, that horses were at these remote periods seized for 
this use ; or, what is still more probable, that men were tutored 
to run from station to station, as is now the practice among the 
eastern nations, where the couriers run their allotted distances 
with astonishing celerity. Even pigeons have been taught to 
fly with letters attached to them. The Emperor Trajan appears 
to have been the first who directed horses to be kept for this 
purpose only. Louis XI. King of France, established the first 
regular conveyance of this description upon the Continent, in the 
year 1464, for the more speedy information, which he thought it 
necessary to possess, concerning the state of his extensive 
dominions. Surrounding nations soon adopted his regulations, 
and each suited them to its own peculiar circumstances. 
Respecting the antiquity of this establishment in England, it is 
not so easy to determine. There are some traces of it so early 
as the time of Edward III. but the earliest mention of chief 
post-master for England, is in Camden's Annals, under date 
1581. James I. erected the first Post-Office for the conveyance 
of letters to and from foreign parts, which he placed under the 


controul of one Matthew de 1'Equester. This office was after- 
wards claimed by Lord Stanhope; but, in 1632, was confirmed 
and continued to Wm. Frizel and Thomas Witherings, by 
Charles I.; and in 1635, all private inland posts were forbidden. 

This branch of the revenue seems to have been but little 
attended to before the usurpation, till which time the posts were 
confined to a few of the principal roads. The outline of the 
more regular and extensive plan which was afterwards adopted, 
seems to have originated with Mr. Edmund Prideaux, attorney- 
general to the commonwealth, who was appointed post-master by 
an ordinance of the two Houses of Parliament, in the execution 
of which office he first established a weekly conveyance of letters 
to all parts of the nation. 

In 1644, the revenue supposed to have been collected was 
about 5OOO/. In 1653-4, the Parliament farmed this revenue 
to a Mr. Manly for io,ooo/. (which Mr. Pennant has, by some 
mistake, called a hundred thousand pounds), and after deducting 
the charges of post-masters, &c. produced a benefit to the public 
of about 7OOO/. 

In 1656, a new and regular Post-Office was established, by 
the authority of the Protector and his Parliament, upon nearly the 
same plan as at present; and in 1660, an act of Parliament 
passed, re-establishing the regulations of 1656, with some im- 
provements, and authorizing the king to establish a Post-Office 
in London, and Post-Houses in such parts of the country as were 
unprovided, both on the post and by-roads. From this period to 
the present many other acts of the legislature have been passed, 
to improve and extend this system, which is at present one of the 
best organized engines of finance existing under any government. 


It has been gradually brought, from the first exertions of indivi- 
duals, replete with abuse, irregularity, and uncertainty, to its 
present state of perfection ; and is now, not only a source of 
great profit to government, but commerce derives from its 
establishment a facility of correspondence, which could not be 
effected by means less powerful or less regular. 

Among the other improvements, that which deserves our 
particular notice in this work, is the alteration suggested and 
carried into effect, by Mr. John Palmer, of Bath. Some general 
ideas of the reform which has since taken place, were first 
suggested to Mr. Pitt in the autumn of 1784, and in the begin- 
ning of the following year a plan was given in to him. After 
having maturely considered it, the minister determined that it 
should undergo a trial. This original plan, which, though it has 
been greatly improved, contains all the principles of the under- 
taking, and in its present state of perfection is a curious and 
interesting memoir, of which we regret that our limits will not 
permit us to give the outlines. Those who have travelled in 
mail-coaches, which were a principle feature in Mr. Palmer's 
plan, need not be informed of their rapid motions, nor of the 
constant, uninterrupted assiduity of the coachmen, the guards, 
the officers at the different post-towns, and even of the ostlers, 
to expedite their progress ; and foreigners, who have no such 
arrangements for the convenience of commerce or travelling in 
their own countries, must form a very favourable idea of the 
commercial character of the British nation, from this establish- 
ment. The regular influx and reflux of money to and from the 
capital, and the natural effect produced by these diurnal rotations 
upon the circulation of the kingdom, is a source of new and 


curious speculation, and is not perhaps one of the least deserving 
among the many which claim the attention of the philosopher. 

The General Post-Office was originally situated in Cloak-lane, 
near Dowgate ; whence it was afterwards removed to the Black 
Swan, in Bishopsgate -street ; and finally to the mansion of 
Sir Robert Vyner, in Lombard -street, of whom a curious 
anecdote is related in the Spectator, No. 462. The convivial 
Sir Robert Vyner, during his mayoralty in 1675, was honoured 
with the presence of his sovereign, Charles II. His majesty was 
for retiring after staying the usual time, but Sir Robert, filled 
with good liquor and loyalty, laid hold of the king, and swore, 
" Sir, you shall take t'other bottle." The good-natured monarch 
looked kindly at him over the shoulder, and, with a smile and 
graceful air, repeated this line of the old song, 

" He that's drunk is as great as a king," 

and immediately turned back, and complied with his landlord. 

But important as the concerns of this establishment are to a 
commercial nation like our own, the edifice can merit no praise as 
a building. It stands behind Lombard -street, from which a 
passage, under an arched gateway on the south side, leads to the 
offices. It is a national reproach, when edifices of this kind, 
which, from our great mercantile concerns, afford occasion for a 
display of public architecture, and ornament to the metropolis, 
are lost to those purposes. 

The print is an exact representation of the office whence the 
letters are delivered in the morning, and where the newspapers 
are sorted in the evening. 

This office is under the controul of two noblemen, holding a 
situation termed joint post -masters general. The present post- 


masters are the Earl of Chichester and the Earl of Sandwich, 
from whom all appointments in the office must proceed, and 
whose sanction is necessary to all orders and regulations. The 
duty of the secretary is, to manage, under the post -masters 
general, the correspondence by post throughout the country, to 
deliver his opinion upon all regulations submitted for the con- 
sideration of the board, and its orders are issued through this 

The duty of the inland department is under the management 
of a superintending president, in conjunction with three presidents 
and three vice-presidents : it commences at six o'clock, and is 
usually finished at ten or eleven in the morning. The letters, 
after they are taken from the bags, are carefully counted, and the 
amount of postage taken, to check the account of the deputy 
post-masters in the country ; they then pass through the hands 
of persons by whom they are all individually examined as to the 
correctness of the charges made by the post-masters from whence 
they come ; and, after being stamped, are assorted to the different 
districts, as they are divided among the letter-carriers. Previous 
to their being issued from this office into the hands of the letter- 
carriers, the amount of each parcel of letters is twice counted up. 
Every letter-carrier is responsible for the account taken of those 
letters that belong immediately to his division. The payment of 
the postage is made by them into the receiver-general's office 
three times a week, where a check for each day's amount is kept 
against them. The utmost care and diligence are exerted, in 
order to prevent the public and the revenue from suffering from 
the numerous hands through which letters must necessarily pass 
before they reach the owners : the apparently precarious mode of 


collecting these levies, is regulated by plans that insure the 
revenue from frauds, that might otherwise so easily exist. The 
circumstance of this great engine to the commercial world, com- 
mencing its operations at so early an hour, enables the public to 
receive their correspondence before the business of the day is 
begun ; an advantage which exists only in London. 

Attendance is given in the evening by a different set of clerks, 
who relieve those employed in the morning. The office hours 
are from half past four till eight o'clock, during which interval 
the letters which have been put into the office in the course of 
the day, and those brought from the various receiving houses, are 
stamped, assorted, and arranged for the different divisions of the 
office, each named from the mail that is dispatched from thence. 
The duty of assorting the letters to these divisions is done by the 
junior clerks, who are instructed, at first entering, in the know- 
ledge of the situation of all the post-towns, and their local relation 
to one another. After sorting the letters, the proper rate of 
postage is marked on them ; each individual letter being at the 
same time examined, to detect double and treble letters, and to 
prevent those for and from members of Parliament from being 
charged. This part of the duty is transacted by the seniors in 
the office, and each of whom can, on an average, charge in this 
manner from sixty to seventy letters in a minute. When the 
letters have been thus properly charged, they are deposited in 
boxes, labelled by the names of the several post-towns. The 
person who undertakes this branch of the duty must necessarily 
be acquainted with the various villages and hamlets, names and 
residences of the members of Parliament in the neighbourhood 
of the towns in his respective division ; and which is done with a 


degree of accuracy that a stranger would scarcely believe possible 
to attain by any thing less than an absolute local knowledge of 
them. After seven o'clock, the amount of letters for each town 
is then told up, and sent with them to the offices in the country ; 
an account of it is reserved at the General Office, as a check on 
the post-masters in their remittances. The bags of letters, after 
being tied and sealed, are arranged and divided into the several 
branches from the main-road, and given to the guards. This is 
always completed by eight o'clock, summer and winter. 

From 1^0,000 to 200,000 letters weekly pass through this 
department only. On one occasion the amount of postage to the 
town of Manchester only was upwards of 3OO/. The immense 
number of letters that are nightly dispatched from hence, excite 
sensations of astonishment in the mind of a bystander, that can 
only be exceeded by the rapidity and accuracy with which every 
part of the duty is managed. All the parts of this wonderful 
piece of mechanism are upon the same expeditious and accurate 
plan, as at the main source. Since the adoption of the system 
recommended by Mr. Palmer, the letters are carried by coaches 
distinguished by the name of mail-coaches, as already stated : 
these are provided with a guard, well armed, and forwarded at 
the rate of eight miles an hour, including all stoppages. The 
time of working the mail is reckoned from the arrival of the 
coach, and as five minutes are considered sufficient time for 
changing horses, it is the duty of the guards to report those 
deputies who neglect to have every thing in readiness for the due 
forwarding of it. 

Government contracts with the coach-owners merely for carry- 
ing the mail ; the profits arising from carrying passengers and 


parcels belong to the coach-keeper. The rapidity of this mode 
of conveyance is unequalled in almost any other country : one 
cannot easily conceive so complete a combination of various 
interests to one purpose! 

Mail-coaches start every night from London to 

Dover, Exeter, Shrewsbury, Manchester, Norwich, Cambridge, 

Poole, Taunton, Worcester, Leeds, Ipswich, Rye, and 

Portsmouth, Gloucester, Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Brighton. 
Chichester, Bristol, Chester, York, 

Exclusive of several other coaches that start at earlier hours, and receive their 
respective mails on the road ; such as Lincoln, Weymouth, &c. &c. 

The inland charges of letters are regulated by the following 

rates : 

A single letter going any distance within 

s.d. s.d. s.d. s. d. s.d. 

15 miles ..04 50 miles ..06 120 miles ..08 230 miles . . o 10 400 miles . . i o 
30 '.05 80 ..07170 ..09 300 ..on 500 ..ii 

And so on in proportion, id. for every additional hundred miles. 

The principal officers in the General Post-Office are, 

The secretary and principal resident surveyor, Francis Freeling, Esq. 
Superintending president of the inland office, Daniel Stow, Esq. 

Comptroller of the foreign office, Arthur Stanhope, Esq. 

Receiver-general, T. Mortlock, Esq. Accomptant-general, Hon. John Spencer. 
Superintendent of mail-coaches, T. Hasker, Esq. Solicitor, A. Parkin, Esq. 

Architect, J. T. Groves, Esq. 
District surveyors, G. Hodgson, S. Woodcock, Chr. Saverland, George Western, 

J. B. Bartlett, Leonard Aust, and A. Scott. 

Inspector of dead and mis-sent letters, R. P. Barlow, Esq. 

Accomptant of the by and cross-road letter-office, J. Wyldbore, Esq. 

Superintendent of t]ie ship-letter-office, Bullen, Esq. 
The number of clerks in the offices, are 62 messengers, 25 inland letter-carriers, 

130 supernumeraries to ditto, 30 foreign letter-carriers, 28. 
Mr. Anthony Todd, a man of singular abilities and generally beloved, was 
secretary to the Post-Office sixty-one years: he died about twelve years ago. 


The expences of this grand establishment are stated to be 
about two hundred thousand pounds per annum ; but the net 
revenue, clear of all deductions and charges, placed to the credit 
of the sinking fund for the year 1808, was upwards of one million 
two hundred thousand pounds. 

The Penny- Post, as it was termed for more than a century, 
originated from the public spirit of a merchant named Dockwra 
and a Mr. Murray, who, with much difficulty and great expence, 
in the reign of Charles II. proceeded so far as to establish it; 
but, strange and perverse as it may appear, every species of 
opposition and misrepresentation attended its progress, and the 
projectors had the mortification to find it adjudged to belong to 
the Duke of York, as a branch of the General Post-Office : but 
its public utility became so obvious, that it did not cease to exist 
from that period till about the close of the last century, when 
government took it under its own immediate controul ; and, in 
order to meet the increased expences of every portion of the 
undertaking, it was determined to double the charge ; and from 
that period it has received the denomination of the Twopenny 
Post. In order to facilitate the conveyance of letters and 
packets, boys are employed, who ride small swift horses, to and 
from the principal office in Gerard-street, Soho, where may be 
seen a miniature representation of the proceedings of the General 



THE society distinguished by the appellation of Quakers, 
are known to each other by the name of Friends, a title 
eminently characteristic of that relation, which, under 
the Christian dispensation, man ought to bear to man. The 
name of Quakers was given to them by Justice Bennet, of 
Derby, in the year 1650; because the founder of it admonished 
him, and those who were present with him, to tremble at the 
name of the Lord. The founder of this society was George 
Fox ; he was born of " honest and sufficient " parents, at 
Dray ton, in Leicestershire, in the year 1624. In his youth he 
manifested a seriousness not usual with persons of his age ; this 
increased so much as he grew up to manhood, that when he was 
about twenty, he conceived himself called upon to separate from 
the world, and to devote himself entirely to religion. It should 
be observed, that, previous to this period, the Protestant church 
had been established in England, which many well-meaning 
persons were not satisfied with, and had therefore formed them- 
selves into a variety of religious sects ; others, disapproving these 
sectaries and the establishment likewise, withdrew from any 
visible church : these were prepared to follow any leader who 
inculcated doctrines which coincided with their own preconceived 
notions. Habit and education were necessarily wanting to render 
the establishment of any mode of worship, about the period to 
which we allude, either general or permanent. It does not 
appear that George Fox made any great progress from the year 


1643 to 1646, during which time he travelled through many parts 
of England. In 1647 we find him inculcating the doctrine of 
perfection. In the following year he became more public in his 
preaching, and extended his travels. In the succeeding year 
began his suffering, on account of the religious notions he 
entertained, and in consequence of his mode of propagating 
them. In the year 1652, he appears to have fully persuaded 
himself, that he .had received a divine mission to preach and 
instruct the people. To give but a very short detail of his life 
would lead us beyond the limits of this publication. He con- 
tinued his labours as a minister of the gospel till within two days 
of his death. During this period he settled meetings in most 
parts of the kingdom, and established the foundation of that 
rigid system of discipline which characterizes the society of 
Friends to this day. He travelled through England, Wales, 
Scotland, and Ireland, visited the West Indies and America, and 
several parts of the continent of Europe. He experienced during 
his life, not only great fatigue of body, but great and unmerited 
sufferings. He was born in July 1624, and died on the i3th 
November, 1690, in his sixty-seventh year. 

The religious tenets of this society are not sufficiently known, 
and in the present age are not perhaps likely to be extended : 
they oppose not only the vices and immoralities which are too 
prevalent, but they forbid even amusements which education 
and habits have taught us to consider innocent and harmless. 
They divide even amusements into useful and hurtful, and strictly 
forbid the latter. All games of chance are prohibited, as below 
the dignity of man and his Christian character, as producing 
an incitement of the passions unfavourable to religious im- 


pressions, as tending to produce habits of gaming, and thereby 
an alteration of the moral character. Music is likewise forbidden, 
as the use of it is considered by them as almost inseparable from 
its abuse. The theatre is expressly forbidden, for many reasons ; 
as the drama professes to reform vice, and personates the 
characters of others, as it inculcates false sentiments, and 
weakens morality, as it disqualifies man for the pleasures of 
religion as well as domestic enjoyments. Dancing is interdicted 
principally as connected with public assemblies ; as, under the 
circumstances usually connected with this amusement, it leads 
to a frivolous levity and an excitement of the evil passions. 
Novels are forbidden, as they tend to produce an affectation of 
knowledge, a romantic spirit, and a perverted morality. Diver- 
sions of the field are forbidden, because, if resorted to as such, 
they are considered as a breach of moral law. An examination 
of the discipline of Quakers, and the objects and forms of their 
monthly, quarterly, and annual meetings for this purpose ; their 
manner of administering the discipline, and the process and effect 
of excommunication upon the society, would embrace too wide a 
field. In their dress they are plain, and deviate less than any 
other class from the simple style which distinguished their 
ancestors from the extravagent modes of their contemporaries. 
They have particularly defined the object of dress, and incor- 
porated this article into their discipline. They are not less 
plain and simple in their furniture, for similar reasons. In 
their common intercourse with the world they have adopted the 
singular pronoun thou, instead of the plural you, as more con- 
formable to grammar, and "because the word you (vos)" says 
William Penn, "was first ascribed, by way of flattery, to proud 


popes and emperors, imitating the heathen's vain homage to their 
gods, thereby ascribing a plural honour to a single person." 
Another distinction peculiar to this society is, that they give no 
titles of address or of honour, in which they make no exception 
in favour of royalty ; and to the days and months they give 
arithmetical names. The Quakers do not drink healths, and the 
women never retire after dinner and leave the men drinking : 
indeed sobriety seems to be peculiarly the virtue of the members 
of this society. 

The Quakers are distinguished by various other singularities. 
In their public worship, where total silence prevails, unless any 
brother or sister is moved by the divine spirit to pronounce a 
mere word of exhortation, the congregation sit covered without 
ceremony ; nay, they often break up the meeting without any 
thing having been said. As they hold it unlawful for Christians 
to swear at all, they are exempted by our courts of justice from 
the necessity of taking an oath, and in such cases where that test 
is required from the rest of their fellow-subjects, the affirmation 
of a Quaker is held to be sufficient. Such is the aversion which 
they profess from war and bloodshed, that they not only refuse 
to bear arms, but have even been known to dismiss from their 
communion some members who were engaged in the manufacture 
or sale of them. 

The society of Friends have several meeting-houses in this 
metropolis, the chief of which are situated in Bishopsgate-street, 
Gracechurch-street, St. Martin's-lane, St. John-street, Southwark, 
and Ratcliffe. 



Page 104, line 27, for Campden read Camden. 
Page 1 12, line 14, for carries read carriages. 
Page 125, line 9, for St. Benet's read St. Bennet's. 








Methuen and Co., London 


Page 104, line 27, for Campden read Camden. 
Page 112, line 14, for carries read carriages. 
Page 125, line 9, for St. Benet's rea " 




Microcosm of London